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a. the result of the addition of numbers, quantities, objects, etc.
b. the cardinality of the union of disjoint sets whose cardinalities are the given numbers
2. one or more columns or rows of numbers to be added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided
3. Maths the limit of a series of sums of the first n terms of a converging infinite series as n tends to infinity
4. another name for number work


the standard monetary unit of Uzbekistan, divided into 100 tiyin
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the name used in Russian chronicles to refer to the Balto-Finnish Suomi tribe, which settled on the southwest coast of Finland early in the first millennium A.D. After subjugating the Sum’ in the mid-12th century, the Swedish feudal lords began the conquest of Finland. Subsequently, the Sum’, Häme, and western Karelian tribes combined to form the Finnish nationality.



the result of the addition of such quantities as numbers, functions, vectors, or matrices. In all cases the commutative and associative laws hold; moreover, if multiplication is defined for the quantities in question, then it is distributive over addition. Thus, the following relations are satisfied:

a + b = b + a

a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c

(a + b)c = ac + bc

c(a + b) = ca + cb

In set theory, the sum, or union, of sets is the set whose elements belong to at least one of the given sets.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The addition of numbers or mathematical objects in context.
The sum of an infinite series is the limit of the sequence consisting of all partial sums of the series.
The sum A + B of two matrices A and B, with the same number of rows and columns, is the matrix whose element cij in row i and column j is the sum of corresponding elements aij in A and bij in B.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


In domain theory, the sum A + B of two domains contains all elements of both domains, modified to indicate which part of the union they come from, plus a new bottom element. There are two constructor functions associated with the sum:

inA : A -> A+B inB : B -> A+B inA(a) = (0,a) inB(b) = (1,b)

and a disassembly operation:

case d of isA

This can be generalised to arbitrary numbers of domains.

See also smash sum, disjoint union.


A Unix utility to calculate a 16-bit checksum of the data in a file. It also displays the size of the file, either in kilobytes or in 512-byte blocks. The checksum may differ on machines with 16-bit and 32-bit ints.

Unix manual page: sum(1).
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (
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Back in the 1960s, dim sum was the exclusive domain of Chinese eateries like Ma Mon Luk, Kowloon House, and small eateries in downtown Binondo district.
Malcolm Hodge, a senior partner in the retirement business of consultancy Mercer, said that when Ford Motor offered lump sums to retirees in 2012, about a third accepted the offer.
The report reveals that 55 percent of the workers who opted to receive a lump sum distribution from their employer-sponsored 401(k) plan rolled their money directly into a tax-qualified account.
Last year, Uzpromstroybank issued shares for 325.2 billion sum, Uzeltekhsanoat - 242.2 billion sum, Uztransgaz - 123.6 billion sum, Asaka Bank - 75 billion sum, Uzagrosanoatmashholding - 73.1 billion sum, Uzmahsusmontajqurilish - 13.3 billion sum and Qishloq Qurilish Bank - 16.7 billion sum.
This is intended to help companies and employees with lump sum relocation allotments.
It seems as if the large real dollar numbers of lump sum payouts mesmerize folks heading into retirement.
Whilst I am ok at present, I have had some fairly serious health problems, which I am advised may shorten my life expectancy, so I think I might be better taking the lump sum and reduced pension.
A challenging scenario for clinicians is when a patient has 1 or more biopsy cores with a high Gleason sum ([greater than or equal to]8), and at least 1 other core reveals a low or intermediate Gleason sum ([less than or equal to]7).
1 and 2] give recurrences that reduce the computation of the Mobius function [mu]([sigma], [tau]) to Mobius function calculations of the form [mu]([sigma]', [tau]') where [tau]' is a single component of [tau] and [sigma]' is a direct sum of consecutive components of [sigma].
In [15], a technique for obtaining simultaneously wide-angular nulling in the sum and difference patterns of a monopulse antenna that utilizes two additional elements, one at each end of the original array, was investigated.
Define hyperoperations [cross product] and [direct sum] on Sub(V) as follows: for all [V.sub.1], [V.sub.2] [member of] Sub(V), [V.sub.1] [cross product] [V.sub.2] = Sub([V.sub.1] [intersection] [V.sub.2]), [V.sub.1] [direct sum] [V.sub.2] = Sub([V.sub.1] + [V.sub.2]), where [V.sub.1] + [V.sub.2] represents the sum space of [V.sub.1] and [V.sub.2].