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Related to sums: Cross sums


a. the result of the addition of numbers, quantities, objects, etc.
b. the cardinality of the union of disjoint sets whose cardinalities are the given numbers
2. one or more columns or rows of numbers to be added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided
3. Maths the limit of a series of sums of the first n terms of a converging infinite series as n tends to infinity
4. another name for number work


the standard monetary unit of Uzbekistan, divided into 100 tiyin



the name used in Russian chronicles to refer to the Balto-Finnish Suomi tribe, which settled on the southwest coast of Finland early in the first millennium A.D. After subjugating the Sum’ in the mid-12th century, the Swedish feudal lords began the conquest of Finland. Subsequently, the Sum’, Häme, and western Karelian tribes combined to form the Finnish nationality.



the result of the addition of such quantities as numbers, functions, vectors, or matrices. In all cases the commutative and associative laws hold; moreover, if multiplication is defined for the quantities in question, then it is distributive over addition. Thus, the following relations are satisfied:

a + b = b + a

a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c

(a + b)c = ac + bc

c(a + b) = ca + cb

In set theory, the sum, or union, of sets is the set whose elements belong to at least one of the given sets.


The addition of numbers or mathematical objects in context.
The sum of an infinite series is the limit of the sequence consisting of all partial sums of the series.
The sum A + B of two matrices A and B, with the same number of rows and columns, is the matrix whose element cij in row i and column j is the sum of corresponding elements aij in A and bij in B.


In domain theory, the sum A + B of two domains contains all elements of both domains, modified to indicate which part of the union they come from, plus a new bottom element. There are two constructor functions associated with the sum:

inA : A -> A+B inB : B -> A+B inA(a) = (0,a) inB(b) = (1,b)

and a disassembly operation:

case d of isA

This can be generalised to arbitrary numbers of domains.

See also smash sum, disjoint union.


A Unix utility to calculate a 16-bit checksum of the data in a file. It also displays the size of the file, either in kilobytes or in 512-byte blocks. The checksum may differ on machines with 16-bit and 32-bit ints.

Unix manual page: sum(1).
References in periodicals archive ?
2 billion sums to transport and communication projects and 568.
There is only one element whose atomic number is equal to its calculated sum.
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So plan sponsors were viewing the retiree lump sums as a way to de-risk fairly significant blocks of liabilities," he said.
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Aon-Hewitt discloses this finding in a new survey, "2014 Lump Sum Windows," that analyzes plan sponsors' experience related to 70 terminated vested lump-sum windows implemented during 2014, the windows covering approximately 290,000 plan participants.
The price per 1 liter of vodka and other alcoholic beverages will be increased from 7,800 to 9,000 sums ($2.
In a paper, "The Illusion of Wealth and Its Reversal," researchers Daniel Goldstein, Hal Hershfield and Shlomo Benartzi attempt to answer the question, "Why do people more often choose the lump sum option instead of the annuity?
5] In contradistinction to the prostatectomy Gleason sum, the biopsy Gleason sum is defined as the most common Gleason grade added to the highest Gleason grade observed.
The direct sum of two permutations [alpha] and [beta], denoted [alpha] [direct sum] [beta], is the concatenation of [alpha] and [beta]', where [beta]' is obtained from [beta] by adding to each of its letters the largest letter of [alpha].
His duties included auditing and making sure the usual procedures regarding the transfer of huge sums were respected.
Research from Prudential found 10% who took a lump sum say they regret the decision or hadn't fully understood the impact it would have.