It is a polytheism because they missed the early opportunity to recognize their Christology in terms of a modal rather than a personalistic trinity (Sabellius
, 220 CE).
The ancient heresy of Sabellius
was a form of modalism that denied the Trinity, affirming instead that God had shown three different faces during the course of human history.
6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) (Taja 275; Frey 360, 882), (19) the lunette decoration depicts Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-74) with the heretics Quintus Arius (256-336), (20) Averroes (Abu-al-Walid Muhammad ibn Abroad ibn Rushd, 1126-98), (21) and Sabellius
Modalists (note Sabellius
) were strong monotheists who believed God was one person who could he seen by believers in three different ways or modes: Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
Ambrose thus applies the command against divorce in Luke 16:18 to signify the inviolable union between the believer and the Church: "Therefore, let not him whom God has drawn to the Son be separated by persecution, nor distracted by extravagance, nor ravaged by philosophy, nor tainted by Manichaeus, nor perverted by Arius, nor infected by Sabellius
." Ambrose then summarizes his argument: "God has joined, let not a Jew separate.
In a footnote Shutte adds: "The shift from Prince to King is consistent with the handling of the paternity theme throughout Ulysses" for Stephen in the Library episode features the heresy of Sabellius
who "held that the Father was Himself His Own Son."
8: 5, which sounds like Sabellius
, rather than Callistus, for it refers to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit being improperly united.
Tertullian wrote a treatise Against Praxeas,(12) and Victor condemned the errors of Sabellius
For Joyce, who, like Stephen Dedalus, read the Summa Contra Gentiles in the original, reference to the arguments of the early Church heresiarchs Photius, Arius, Valentine, and Sabellius
was a plausible way to begin seeking some answers.
Vinzent opens with a brief chapter on the history of research on CAIV in its three phases: the first to the mid-nineteenth century, when the work was still accepted as by Athanasius and directed against Arians, Sabellius
, and Paul of Samosata; the second covering the second half of the nineteenth century, when the primary target was identified not as the Arians but as Marcellus and his pupil Photinus (Newman's suggestion); and the third to the present, classifying the work as Pseudo-Athanasian and seeking to identify its author.
(56) It is impossible to know whether Sabellius
himself, in the first half of the third century, had already made technical use of this term.
The last part of the book returns to the theme of the unity and unicity of God, beginning in the seventh essay with short treatments of Clement of Rome and Hermas, Theodotus and Artemon, Cleomenes and Sabellius
, Callistus and his foe (the author of the Refutation of All Heresies, whom Simonetti cautiously describes merely as `a Roman author who worked at the time of Callistus and later'), Novatian, and Dionysius of Rome.