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(US), saber
a sword used in fencing, having a narrow V-shaped blade, a semicircular guard, and a slightly curved hand
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a type of silent weapon used for cutting.

There are many different kinds of sabers. They appeared in the Orient in the sixth to seventh centuries and were mentioned in the Russian chronicles from the tenth century. The saber consists of a steel blade and handle (hilt) and fits into a scabbard. The blade is curved, with the cutting edge on the convex side and the back edge on the concave side. The saber has a cutting point (sometimes with grooves) and a tailpiece that fits the handle. Sabers are 800–900 mm long and 30–35 mm wide.

The effectiveness of a saber is measured by a combination of blade curve and position of the center of gravity that reduces the angle of cutting and increases the force of the blow. The blades of Oriental sabers, which were intended only for slashing, have a rise of up to 100 mm, whereas European sabers, including late Russian ones, were designed for slashing and piercing, and the rise is 10 mm. The handles have various designs—with bar guards and crosspieces and with one to three arc-shaped guards. Scabbards may be made of wood, and they may be covered with leather, morocco, or velvet or be decorated with metallic inserts, frequently gold, silver, and sometimes precious stones. In the 19th and 20th centuries, saber scabbards were metal, nickel-plated, chrome-plated, or burnished.

In Russia in the 16th century the calvary and infantry strel’-tsy (semiprofessional musketeers) were armed with sabers. In the 18th century sabers were adopted in the European and Russian armies for light cavalry and the command personnel of all combat arms. In 1881 the saber was replaced in the Russian Army by a conventional sword and kept only in the guards as a parade weapon. Parade sabers for generals were introduced in the USSR in 1940 and then in 1949 were replaced by dirks.




a cutting and piercing weapon used in sport fencing.

The fencing saber consists of an elastic steel blade and a hilt, with a cup-shaped elongated guard to protect the hand and the handle. The blade has a variable trapeziform cross section that tapers proportionally toward the apex and ends with an enlarged tip (4 × 4 mm). Saber blades may have longitudinal grooves on the lateral and wide top sides. The total length is not more than 105 cm (the blade not more than 88 cm), and maximum weight is 500g.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The former undersecretary for the culture ministry, Hossam Nassar, claimed that Saber Arab cooperated with the Muslim Brotherhood in order to help them extend their influence within the ministry, but decided to leave after recognising the government was failing.
Segun los oponentes del saber-como disposicional, este caso muestra claramente que saber como uno desempena una accion no es lo mismo que tener una habilidad para desempenar la accion, pues hay casos en los que alguien sabe como se desempena cierta accion sin poseer la habilidad correspondiente.
Ninguno de estos casos muestra que saber como uno deberia tocar el violin, no es la habilidad para hacerlo.
He added that since next Saturday is a public holiday due to the scheduled referendum on the constitution, it is unlikely Saber will be released before Sunday.
Saber is accused of contempt of religion for making a video a year ago, in which he asked people to think for themselves and not follow religious authority figures.
Saber had posted a video critical of religion in general last year.
Ahmed Ezzat, a member of Saber's defence team and a lawyer with the Association for Freedom of Thought and Expression argued in court that most of the evidence presented by the prosecution was invalid.
The official investigation accused Saber of "denying the existence of god" and "refuted the validity of Quranic and Biblical verses."
Ahmed Ezzat, Saber's lawyer and a member of the Association for Freedom of Thought and Expression, said "He is just a citizen who is thinking differently and expressing his opinion, contempt of religion means physically attacking someone based on their religion or preventing them from practising it, Alber did not do that." Ezzat was speaking on 17 September after his client's detention was renewed.
"He also couldn't move the small finger of his left hand at all, had bruises and contusions all over his body and was unable to move generally," Seif El-Dawla continued adding that she requested that Saber be sent for an X-ray of his head.
Saber began chanting outside the cordoned off area designated for the Kefaya demonstration at around 3 pm on Tuesday.