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, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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(pen name of Mirza Alekper Tairzade). Born May 19 (31), 1862, in the city of Shemakha; died there July 12 (25), 1911. Azerbaijani poet.

Sabir was a student in a madrasa and then studied in the new-method school of the poet Seid Azim Shirvani. In his early years he wrote lyric ghazals. The revolution of 1905–07 awakened civic motifs in Sabir’s poetry. His works were published in the satirical journal Molla Nasreddin under the pen name Khop-khop (Hoopoe), which he later changed frequently in order to hide his authorship from the reactionaries who were persecuting him. Satirizing such characters as a religious fanatic, a family patriarch, an intellectual alienated from the common people, and a hypocritical mullah, Sabir lashed out at everything that impeded progress and advocated enlightenment and freedom.

Through his social satires, Sabir was the first in Azerbaijani literature to raise the question of class oppression. Working people perceived in his satires a call to struggle for their rights. His political satires reflected the dissolution of the State Duma in Russia, the intrigues of the autocracy against the liberation movements in countries of the Middle East, the despotism of the Turkish sultan, and the schemes of the international forces of reaction.

Sabir and Dzh. Mamedkulizade, together with other progressive writers, created a new satirical school in Azerbaijani realist literature. Sabir’s poetry and the better works of other Molla Nasreddin writers were the first examples of proletarian literature to appear in the Azerbaijani language. They prepared the way for further development of Azerbaijani Soviet literature.


Bütün äsärläri. Baku, 1934.
Hophopnamä, vols. 1–3. Baku, 1962–65.
In Russian translation:
Izbrannoe. Baku, 1962. [Foreword by M. Ibragimov; commentary and notes by A. Sharif.]
Izbr. satiry. Moscow, 1962. [Foreword by L. Pen’kovskii.]


Sharif, A. Zhizn’ipoeticheskoe tvorchestvo Sabira (1862–1911). Moscow, 1951.
Mirähmä dov, A. Sabir. Baku, 1958.
Zamanov, A. Sabir vä müasirlari. Baku, 1973. Az. Sharif



an urban-type settlement in Shemakha Raion, Azerbaijan SSR. Located on the Pirsagat River, on the Baku-Tbilisi highway, 79 km northeast of the Kiurdamir railroad station, on the Tbilisi-Aliat line. Sabir has a winery.

References in periodicals archive ?
Then another sweeping move saw Mayira Sabir netting her first and team's fifth goal of the day.
Abdul Rahim Girhori, an eminent Naqshbandi Sufi, also visited Miyon Sabir Walhari's Naqshbandi school and khanqah.
Considering how far he has come from his days of garbage picking, Sabir has reason to be optimistic about his new project.
A letter to Mr Sabir said Excel Parking would not accept further appeals, but said he could appeal to the Independent Appeals Service, which was created to provide an independent review on the lawfulness of parking charges imposed by private companies.
Alubond Tigers 220 for 2 in 20 overs (Ghulam Sabir 102, Rohan Mustafa 100 not out) vs New Stars 135 for 9 in 20 overs (AK Mohideen 35, Darshana Mahesh 35, Hasan Raza 3-22, Nasir Aziz 2-22, Rohan Mustafa 2-23).
Mr Sabir, aged 41, from Solihull, has contacted Emirates and is waiting for a response.
The disputes are related to investment projects with the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, Finance, Petroleum, Irrigation, Agriculture, and Housing, amongst other disputes with the governorates of Cairo, Giza, the Red Sea, Matruh, South Sinai and New Valley," according to Sabir.
Sabir Ali and Anil Kumar Sharma are banking on support of those JD-U MLA's who belong to the anti-Nitish camp.
01 tot Martin HAPPY FAMILYAYIXIA, Sabir and son Daniel, 2, with tot THAT'S OUR BOY Louise and Alan with little Callum, who arrived at 6.
Two men were driving the boat which was loaded with 63 boxes [filled with explosive devices]," said Mohammed Sabir, the director of the Mocha Port.
YENy DELHy (CyHAN)- Amid reports of fresh Chinese intrusion along the Line of Actual Control, JD (U) leader Sabir Ali has said that India should give a strong message to China in order to maintain the morale of the Indian soldiers.
The non-profit group has been in existence since about mid-2010 and pays particular attention to small and medium-sized insurers because they have found it increasingly difficult to get their particular point of view known, says SABIR.