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in law, the formal admission of criminal guilt, usually obtained in the course of examination by the police or prosecutor or at trial. For a confession to be admissible as evidenceevidence,
in law, material submitted to a judge or a judicial body to resolve disputed questions of fact. The rules discussed in this article were developed in England for use in jury trials.
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 against an accused individual, it generally must have been procured voluntarily after the person was informed of his or her right to remain silent and right to consult an attorney (see Miranda v. ArizonaMiranda v. Arizona,
U.S. Supreme Court case (1966) in the area of due process of law (see Fourteenth Amendment). The decision reversed an Arizona court's conviction of Ernesto Miranda on kidnapping and rape charges.
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). If a confession is obtained through torture, threats, prolonged interrogation, or false promises of immunity from prosecution, it is inadmissible, but law enforcement officials may and do use psychological pressure, which can lead to false confessions. A signed confession is presumed to be voluntary, and the accused must introduce proof that it was extorted in order to prevent its introduction at the trial. In 1981 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that murder defendants should be informed of their right to remain silent during interviews with psychologists, who might later testify for the prosecution that the client was "dangerous" and thus deserving of a stiff penalty. A 1986 ruling stated that a criminal defendant entering a plea of "not guilty" had the right to describe to the court how his confession was obtained by police. The ideal of a voluntary confession was upset recently, however, in the case of Arizona v. Fulminante (1991). There, the Supreme Court ruled that coerced confessions do not invariably nullify a conviction, but can be regarded merely as "harmless errors"—at least where additional incriminating evidence is available. Usually, a person who does not plead guilty cannot be convicted solely on the basis of his confession.


See P. Brooks, Troubling Confessions: Speaking Guilt in Law and Literature (2000).

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Confessional inside the Cathedral of St. Pol-de-Leon, Brittany, France. Fortean Picture Library.


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

A Christian "confession" carries with it the meaning of agreeing to a particular statement of faith. For example, the minister sometimes invites a congregation to read the Apostles' Creed (see Gnosticism) by saying, "Let us together make our confession of faith." But perhaps the most familiar meaning of the word refers to the Catholic tradition of confessing ad auriculam, "into the ear of" a priest. The practice began in the medieval church. The Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 declared confession had to be at least an annual event if the confessor wanted to receive the host during Eucharist. In the sixteenth century, in order to provide privacy and a more substantial ritual, confessional stalls began to be used. It has always been the law of the land that anything said to a priest was absolutely confidential. The priest took a holy vow that he was bound not to reveal anything told him in the confessional. But recently, as a result of child-abuse scandals in the Catholic church, state legislatures are beginning to question the practice of excusing priests and ministers from lists of people, such as doctors and social workers, who are required to report instances of child abuse. In May 2002 the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, for example, eliminated from the list of exceptions ministers of denominations who did not use confessionals by tradition.

Terrorist threats raised more questions. If a terrorist, seeking to save his soul after committing murder, confesses to a priest bound by the power of the confessional, is the priest obligated to remain silent?

It remains to be seen how long the Church will be able to hold out from social pressure requiring, for the public good, at least some confidentiality to be discarded.

confession, confessio

1.The tomb of a martyr or confessor; if an altar was erected over the grave, the name was also extended to the altar and to the subterranean chamber in which it stood; in later times a basilica was sometimes erected over the chamber and the entire building was known as a confession.
2. The space immediately below, or in front of, the primary altar of a church.


1. Christianity Chiefly RC Church the act of a penitent accusing himself of his sins
2. confession of faith a formal public avowal of religious beliefs
3. a religious denomination or sect united by a common system of beliefs
References in periodicals archive ?
She claimed that nowhere in the Bible was it said that only priests should perform the sacrament of confession.
The first is the attempt by Bartolome de las Casas to use the sacrament of confession as an instrument to compel the Spaniards, conquistadores, and colonizers to admit that their actions violated the natural rights of the natives, as well as God's commandments, and constituted mortal sins, and that the only way to receive divine forgiveness and avoid eternal condemnation was to restore to the indigenous communities their lands, confiscated wealth, and sovereignty.
While no single factor led to the substantial decline of participation in the sacrament of confession, O'Toole identifies the major components of this phenomenon in the section titled, "In the Court of Conscience: American Catholics and Confession, 1900-1975." O'Toole points to fear, uneasiness in cross-gender dialogue, and an implied message of the Second Vatican Council for the reduction of confessions.
Most of these authors also had their institutional obligations in mind: to fulfill the confessor's responsibility to portray models of devotion and to defend the sacrament of confession and doctrines such as the intercession of saints.
"An Homilie of Repentaunce and of true reconciliation vnto God," the last sermon contained in the Second Book of Homilies (1562), continues this tradition by connecting exterior devotion to the corruption of the Roman Catholic sacrament of confession: Therefore they that teache repentunce without a liuely faythe in our Sauiour Jesu Christ, doo teache none other, but Judas repentaunce, as all the scholemen do, whiche do onlye allowe these three partes of Repentannce: the contrition of the hart, the confession of the mouth, and the satisfaction of the worke.
Both children and priests should be seen but not heard when taking part in the sacrament of confession.
Spokesman Father Danny McLaughlan said: "For a Catholic, it could not take the place of the sacrament of confession. That can't be done by computer, telephone or fax."
Since the sacrament of confession was a major part of religious life in 16th-century Italy, the sections on confession in the City of the Sun appear prima facie out of place in a society based on natural law.
"As no exemptions are made, the absolute confidentialty of the sacrament of confession could be violated.
Parias first met Green in the 1960s, when he wrote an article on the sacrament of confession for France Catholique.
Persons's description of `those which attend in the Catholique Churche, to deale with soules in the holie sacrament of confession' become `those which are known to be skilful, and to deal so sincerely withal, that others disburden their consciences unto them for their comfort or counsel'.(3) Bunny uses parentheses.