Saddam Hussein

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Hussein, Saddam

(sädäm` ho͞osān`), 1937–2006, Iraqi political leader. A member of the Ba'ath partyBa'ath party
, Arab political party, in Syria and in Iraq. Its main ideological objectives are secularism, socialism, and pan-Arab unionism. Founded in Damascus in 1941 and reformed, with the name Ba'ath, in the early 1950s, it rapidly achieved political power in Syria.
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, he fled Iraq after participating (1959) in an assassination attempt on the country's prime minister; in Egypt he attended law school. Returning to Iraq in 1963 after the Ba'athists briefly came to power, he played a significant role in the 1968 revolution that secured Ba'ath hegemony. Hussein held key economic and political posts before becoming Iraq's president in 1979.

As president, he focused on strengthening the Iraqi oil industry and military and gaining a greater foothold in the Arab world while using brutal measures to maintain his power. In 1980 he escalated a long-standing dispute with IranIran
, officially Islamic Republic of Iran, republic (2005 est. pop. 68,018,000), 636,290 sq mi (1,648,000 sq km), SW Asia. The country's name was changed from Persia to Iran in 1935.
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 over the Shatt al ArabShatt al Arab
, tidal river, 120 mi (193 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, flowing SE to the Persian Gulf, forming part of the Iraq-Iran border; the Karun is its chief tributary.
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 waterway into a full-scale war (see Iran-Iraq WarIran-Iraq War,
1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns
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) lasting eight years. On Aug. 2, 1990, Hussein ordered an Iraqi invasion of neighboring KuwaitKuwait
or Kowait
, officially State of Kuwait, constitutional emirate (2005 est. pop. 2,336,000), 6,177 sq mi (16,000 sq km), NE Arabian peninsula, at the head of the Persian Gulf. Kuwait is bounded by Saudi Arabia on the south and by Iraq on the north and west.
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; however, Iraq was forced out in early 1991 by an international military coalition (see IraqIraq
or Irak
, officially Republic of Iraq, republic (2005 est. pop. 26,075,000), 167,924 sq mi (434,924 sq km), SW Asia. Iraq is bordered on the south by Kuwait, the Persian Gulf, and Saudi Arabia; on the west by Jordan and Syria; on the north by Turkey; and on the
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; Persian Gulf WarPersian Gulf Wars,
two conflicts involving Iraq and U.S.-led coalitions in the late 20th and early 21st cent.

The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb.
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).

Following the war, Hussein weathered a Kurdish rebellion in the north and quelled a Shiite insurrection in the south, while his country suffered the effects of international economic sanctions. Hussein's resistance to UN-supervised weapons inspections imposed as part of the conditions for ending the Gulf War led to U.S. and British bombing raids against Iraq beginning in 1998. With the threat of war with the U.S. and Britain looming in 2002, Iraq agreed to let UN inspectors return, but the failure of Iraq to cooperate fully with the United Nations led to a U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in Mar., 2003. In a little less than a month Anglo-American forces ended Hussein's control over nearly all Iraq, although guerrillas continued to mount attacks in the following months. Hussein survived the invasion, but was not captured until Dec., 2003.

In 2004 he was transferred to Iraqi legal custody and arraigned on charges stemming from his presidency. The Iraqi government put Hussein on trial in 2005 for crimes against humanity, for ordering the execution of 143 men in the Shiite village of Dujail following an assassination attempt on him there in 1982. In 2006, charges of genocide, resulting from the anti-Kurd Anfal campaign in the late 1980s, also were brought against him. Hussein was convicted and sentenced to death in the Dujail case in Nov., 2006; after an unsuccessful appeal he was hanged in Dec., 2006.

Bibliography

See K. M. Woods et al., ed., The Saddam Tapes (2011).

References in periodicals archive ?
El Gabinete Bush ya habia decidido casi inmediatamente despues del 11-S invadir Irak y terminar con el regimen de Sadam Hussein, y la Doctrina de la Guerra Preventiva seria el soporte ideologico, ya que desde hacia anos se sospechaba que Irak poseia armas de destruccion masiva, una amenaza que habia que "prevenir".
Como era de esperar, el presidente norteamericano aprovecho la ocasion para renovar sus acusaciones sobre el programa de armas quimicas y biologicas presuntamente desarrollado por Sadam Hussein.
A question to Cindy Sheehan and her supporters: Where were your protests when Sadam Hussein slaughtered his own people, when he gassed innocent men, women and children?
Mr Galloway is suing the paper over allegations he was in the pay of Iraqui dictator Sadam Hussein.
Asi, pese al modo en que la pelicula desafia la razon, uno comprende al mirada que Michael Moore esta diciendo, con otras palabras, lo unico que ninguna persona informada o ponderada puede creer: que Sadam Hussein no representaba ningun problema.
I am not a particular fan of George Bush but do believe wholeheartedly that any comparison drawn between him and Sadam Hussein is despicable and totally unreal.
Un nuevo orden internacional ha emergido de manera clara tras el triunfo militar de Estados Unidos sobre el regimen de Sadam Hussein.
Sadam Hussein has already invaded one of his territorial targets.
We can hardly attack the vile dictatorship of Sadam Hussein if we do not practise democracy at home and base any attack on the rule of law and with the mandate of the UN.
According to others, the liberal =MEP has drafted a report not on Iraq but on Sadam Hussein, taking up =wholesale American propaganda on the danger of the Iraqi regime building =up chemical and biological arms stocks, and trying to transform this =view into a parliamentary position.
ANDREW COCKBURN'S most recent book is Out of the Ashes: The Resurrection of Sadam Hussein.
I haven't seen America indulge in such gloating since the trouncing of Sadam Hussein - an event that unleashed strong feelings that surprised many of those who still harbored them.