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(ōrō`mō) or


(găl`ə), traditionally pastoral tribes who live in W and S Ethiopia and N Kenya. They number more than 25 million. About half are Muslim, about a third Ethiopian Orthodox, and about a sixth Protestant. Most live in Ethiopia, mainly in the ethnically based state of Oromia; they constitute roughly a third of all Ethiopians.

Originally from N Somalia, they later migrated to the region of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf). In the mid-16th cent. they began to move into the Ethiopian highlands. Never a united group, they were not a serious threat to the Ethiopian state. Their raids, however, were a considerable nuisance, and they were able to establish small states in many areas nominally controlled by the Ethiopian emperor. They were used as mercenary soldiers by the Ethiopians.

Oromo separatist guerrillas campaigned against Ethiopian rule from the 1990s without any significant results; they have also mounted occasional raids into Kenya. The Ethiopian government typically responded by repressing its opponents, occasionally prompting antigovernment demonstrations. Plans to transfer areas of Oromia neighboring Addis Ababa to the latter's administration led to protests beginning in 2014. The plan was abandoned in 2016, but protests continued in response to thousands of arrests and hundreds of deaths in a government crackdown; protests were also fueled by resentments against foreign-owned factories. In 2018 Ethiopia signed a peace agreement with the main Oromo separatist group, but a splinter faction continued its attacks, often focusing on non-Oromos.


See G. W. B. Huntingford, The Galla of Ethiopia (1955, repr. 1969); H. S. Lewis, A Galla Monarchy (1965).

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References in periodicals archive ?
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Later, in 1984, a portion of Riemvasmaak known as Melkbosrand, was incorporated into the adjacent Augrabies Falls National Park in 1982 (SADF, 1990).
Its aim was to monitor the ceasefire between South African Defence Force (SADF) and guerrillas of the South West African People's Organization (SWAPO), and also to prepare and administer free elections to a Constituent Assembly in Namibia.
His account of the South African Defence Force (SADF) raid on Cassinga on May 4, 1978 is weakened by his failure to consult key sources, including the Report of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
And then, halfway through my basic training, Nelson Mandela was released and I realised I was in a very privileged position--I could witness this momentous time from within the SADF. My plan was to record the collapse of the well-oiled machine that had propped up apartheid for decades....