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(ōrō`mō) or


(găl`ə), traditionally pastoral tribes who live in W and S Ethiopia and N Kenya. They number more than 25 million. About half are Muslim, about a third Ethiopian Orthodox, and about a sixth Protestant. Most live in Ethiopia, mainly in the ethnically based state of Oromia; they constitute roughly a third of all Ethiopians.

Originally from N Somalia, they later migrated to the region of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf). In the mid-16th cent. they began to move into the Ethiopian highlands. Never a united group, they were not a serious threat to the Ethiopian state. Their raids, however, were a considerable nuisance, and they were able to establish small states in many areas nominally controlled by the Ethiopian emperor. They were used as mercenary soldiers by the Ethiopians.

Oromo separatist guerrillas campaigned against Ethiopian rule from the 1990s without any significant results; they have also mounted occasional raids into Kenya. The Ethiopian government typically responded by repressing its opponents, occasionally prompting antigovernment demonstrations. Plans to transfer areas of Oromia neighboring Addis Ababa to the latter's administration led to protests beginning in 2014. The plan was abandoned in 2016, but protests continued in response to thousands of arrests and hundreds of deaths in a government crackdown; protests were also fueled by resentments against foreign-owned factories. In 2018 Ethiopia signed a peace agreement with the main Oromo separatist group.


See G. W. B. Huntingford, The Galla of Ethiopia (1955, repr. 1969); H. S. Lewis, A Galla Monarchy (1965).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Afrikaans press primarily propagated the views of the National Party--it is notea that any criticism of the National Party by an Afrikaans newspaper SADF troops in the "revolved around the application of apartheid policy present day rather than the principles involved".
In 1982, the Denel Corporation began licensed production of the Israeli-designed Galil rifle, which was adopted by the SADF as the R4.
The pre-1994 role of the military in the State Security Council and the so-called National Security Management System was a good example of the political role and influence of the SADF in society.
Calueque was also where the final crucial clash between the Cubans and the South Africans took place in June 1988, and nearby Ruacana was the scene of important meetings between the Cubans, the Angolans and members of the SADF both in 1976-77 and again in 1988-89.
Throughout the period from 1990-94, there was a steady stream of revelations coming out about illegal actions and atrocities still being perpetrated by the SADF, particularly the instigation of violence in Kwa-Zulu Natal.
Charles met Alison at a bible class after flying to London in 1979, not for the first time narrowly evading his call up into the SADF.
In addition, the SADF gave military backing to the Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana (RENAMO), an insurgent movement operating in Mozambique.
held together by a few SADF officers and CIA advisors-lined up on the road to attack as a convoy.
Of these 154 were former combatants from the African National Congress (ANC) military wing MK, 50 from the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania's military wing (APLA), 15 internal Self-Defense Unit members (known as SDUs--mostly ANG and some PAC), 1 AZANLA combatant (The armed wing of the Black Consciousness Movement), 1 Inkatha VIP Protection Unit member, 43 former SADF or post 1994 SANDF members, and 7 members from the former "independent" homeland defense forces (Ciskei, Transkei, Venda, and Boputhatswana).
Alas, when the time for withdrawal came, SADF destroyed the advantage by attempting to clear the mines.
although the role of the matrilineal clans within Himba society is still recognised, the authority of women in politics has declined since the war between the SADF and SWAPO, and the introduction of male-dominated local government.