Saffarid(sä`färĭd), a dynasty of Sistan that flourished in the 9th cent., ruling (867–1495) in E Persia. Its founder, Yaqub ibn Layth, d. 879?, was a coppersmith who raised an army during a time of unrest and instability, conquering his native province of Sistan by 867. A few years later, he had expanded his rule to include Baluchistan, Fars, Kerman, Sind, and in 873, KhorasanKhorasan
, region and former province (1991 pop. 6,013,200), c.125,000 sq mi (323,750 sq km), NE Iran. Mashhad is the chief city; other cities include Sabzevar, Bojnurd, and Neyshabur. It is mainly mountainous and arid.
..... Click the link for more information. . However, Yaqub's forces were defeated (876) in an attempt to take BaghdadBaghdad
, city (1987 pop. 3,841,268), capital of Iraq, central Iraq, on both banks of the Tigris River. The city's principal economic activity is oil refining.
..... Click the link for more information. . Amr ibn Layth, d. 900?, Yaqub's brother and successor, was legitimately recognized by the caliph ruling Baghdad. Amr, the governor of Fars, Isfahan, Khorasan, Sind, and Sistan, was defeated by the SamanidsSamanid
, Muslim Persian dynasty that ruled (819–1005) in Khorasan and Transoxiana as vassals of the Abbasids; founded by Saman-Khuda, of old Persian aristocracy. The Samanids were one of the first purely indigenous dynasties to rule in Persia following the Muslim Arab
..... Click the link for more information. of Transoxiana in 900. Saffarid governors retained nominal local power until the late 15th cent., despite territorial encroachment by the Ghaznavids and the MongolsMongols
, Asian people, numbering about 6 million and distributed mainly in the Republic of Mongolia, the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China, and Kalmykia and the Buryat Republic of Russia.
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