These MEMS gyroscopes are limited in their sensitivity, so optical gyroscopes have been developed to perform the same function but with no moving parts and a greater degree of accuracy using a phenomenon called the Sagnac effect
The centenary of Sagnac effect
and its applications: From electromagnetic to matter waves.
A subsequent series of experiments were carried out with careful studies of systematic effects by measuring the bending effect using X-rays and considering the Sagnac effect
 due to the rotation of the Earth [3, 4].
Resonant integrated optical gyroscope (RIOG) is a high performance rotation sensor based on the Sagnac effect
, in which an optical waveguide ring resonator is utilized as the sensing element [1-3].
Both use the Sagnac effect
, which basically says that rotation of a closed optical path will affect the interference between two counterrotating light beams.
The synchronization problem is partly a result of the Sagnac effect
, a phenomenon that causes clocks in a rotating system (in this case, the earth) to be out of sync with one another when viewed from a stationary frame.
After introducing the general principles of optical gyroscopes based on a recirculating Sagnac effect
, the technical guide explains the solid state configuration of optical fiber gyroscopes, the reciprocity of a fiber ring interferometer, the behavior of polarization maintaining fibers, and closed-loop operation methods to linearize the scale factor.
Besides these he was the first person among the scientists, who had registered the Sagnac effect
This is the Sagnac effect
, a piece of physics so obscure that it does not even have an index entry in the 15-volume McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
(Read more on the Sagnac effect
and explanations of it in my recent papers [12,13].) It should also be noted that the Lorentz transformations lead to the relation c' = c, which differs from Tangherlini's formula (2).
The Sagnac interferometer is based on the Sagnac effect
, reported by G.