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a system of mountain ranges and massifs in the southern Atlas Mountains, in Algeria. Average elevations range between 1,200 and 1,500 m; individual peaks rise to elevations of more than 2,000 m (Djebel Aissa, 2,336 m). Cuestas and flat-topped peaks predominate in the relief; outcrops of salt-bearing rocks are common, for example, cliffs and domes of gypsum and salt. Landforms are of the semidesert type. On the peaks, there are sparse forests of holm oak, Aleppo pine, thuja, and savin.