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Saint Andrews,town (1991 pop. 11,302), Fife, E Scotland, on the North Sea. A summer resort, it is famous for its golf courses. It was the seat of an archbishop from 908 and the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland until the Reformation. St. Andrews Cathedral, the largest in Scotland, but now a ruin, was founded in 1160 and plundered by Protestants in 1559. At St. Andrews the Protestant reformers Patrick HamiltonHamilton, Patrick,
1504?–1528, Scottish Protestant martyr. While at St. Andrews, he was suspected of Lutheran sympathies. He fled (1527) to Germany, where, during his short stay, he met Luther and Melanchthon.
..... Click the link for more information. and George WishartWishart, George
, 1513?–1546, Scottish religious reformer, Protestant martyr. He was master of a grammar school in Montrose. In 1538 he fled Scotland to escape charges of heresy; he was in England for a short time, then on the Continent.
..... Click the link for more information. were burned. Protestants, among them John KnoxKnox, John,
1514?–1572, Scottish religious reformer, founder of Scottish Presbyterianism. Early Career as a Reformer
Little is recorded of his life before 1545. He probably attended St. Andrews Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. , seized the bishop's palace (now also a ruin) in 1546 and held it for a year against siege by the French forces of Mary of Guise. The Univ. of St. Andrews, which dates from 1410, is the oldest in Scotland. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club is there.
a city in E Scotland, in Fife on the North Sea: the oldest university in Scotland (1411); famous golf links. Pop.: 14 209 (2001)