Saint Bernard


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Saint Bernard,

two Alpine passes, both used since antiquity. The Great Saint Bernard (alt. 8,110 ft/2,472 m), on the Italian-Swiss border, links Valais canton, Switzerland, with Valle d'Aosta, Italy. Frequented by the Gauls and Romans, the pass also was crossed by Charlemagne, Emperor Henry IV, Frederick Barbarossa, and Napoleon I. The hospice, founded by St. Bernard of Menthon, is in the charge of Augustinian friars. The St. Bernard dogs bred by them were formerly used to search for lost travelers. A ruined temple of Jupiter stands at the summit. Nearby are a hotel, a church, a library, and a scientific institute. The Great St. Bernard Road Tunnel, c.4 mi (6.4 km) long, linking Switzerland and Italy, was opened in 1964. The Little Saint Bernard (alt. 7,178 ft/2,188 m) connects Savoie dept., France, with Valle d'Aosta, Italy. It also has a hospice founded by St. Bernard of Menthon.

Saint Bernard,

breed of massive working dogworking dog,
classification used by breeders and kennel clubs to designate dogs raised by humans to herd cattle and sheep, as draft animals, as message dispatchers in wartime, in police and rescue work, as guardians of persons and property, or as guides (see guide dog) for the
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 developed in Switzerland in the 18th cent. and perfected by British breeders during the 19th cent. It stands from 25 to 29 in. (64–74 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 140 to 170 lb (64–77 kg). There are two varieties of St. Bernard, the smooth-coated, with very dense, short hair, and the rough-coated, with medium-length, straight or slightly wavy hair. In color the coat may be white with red markings, red with white markings, white with brindle, or brindle with white. The muzzle is white and the face characteristically marked with black. The St. Bernard was originally bred by the monks at the Hospice of the St. Bernard Pass in the Swiss Alps for rescue and guide work. Early in its history, the St. Bernard became a legendary figure as a result of the widespread stories of its valiant missions to save the lives of snowbound travelers in the pass. This rescue work, however, has undoubtedly been overemphasized. Endowed with an uncanny sense of direction, the St. Bernard was used primarily to guide the monks over trails often obliterated by windblown snow. Today it is gaining popularity as a show competitor and family companion. See dogdog,
carnivorous, domesticated wolf (Canis lupus familiaris) of the family Canidae, to which the jackal, fox, and tanuki also belong. The family Canidae is sometimes referred to as the dog family, and its characteristics, e.g.
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.

Bernard, Saint:

see Bernard of Clairvaux, SaintBernard of Clairvaux, Saint
, 1090?–1153, French churchman, mystic, Doctor of the Church. Born of noble family, in 1112 he entered the Cistercian abbey of Cîteaux, taking along 4 or 5 brothers and some 25 friends.
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; Bernard of Menthon, SaintBernard of Menthon, Saint
, d. 1081?, Italian churchman, founder of the Alpine hospices of Saint Bernard. His life was spent working among the people of the Val d'Aosta. Also known as Bernard of Montjoux, he is the patron of mountaineers. Feast: May 28.
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. For the two Alpine passes, see Saint BernardSaint Bernard,
two Alpine passes, both used since antiquity. The Great Saint Bernard (alt. 8,110 ft/2,472 m), on the Italian-Swiss border, links Valais canton, Switzerland, with Valle d'Aosta, Italy.
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.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Saint Bernard

 

a breed of watchdogs that make popular pets. First bred in the 13th—14th centuries in the Swiss Alps, Saint Bernards were derived from Asian mastiff-like dogs which were brought into Europe and crossed with local dogs. The breed was named after the St. Bernard Hospice in Switzerland, which used the dogs in searching for people who had been trapped by avalanches or lost in the mountains during snowstorms.

Saint Bernards are large, standing 80–95 cm high at the shoulder. The head is wide and massive. There are both longhaired and shorthaired Saint Bernards. The dogs are white with red markings. Saint Bernards are raised by amateur dog breeders in Europe and Asia; the breed is rare in the USSR.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Saint Bernard

a large breed of dog with a dense red-and-white coat, formerly used as a rescue dog in mountainous areas
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Saint Bernard, Doctor of the Church, known for his prayer, 'Memorare,' addressed Mary as Star of the Sea, or in latin, Stella Maris.
Intensity II was felt in Saint Bernard, Southern Leyte.
"In Saint Bernard Parish, for years there's been this untenable situation in which people actually share a fence with a refinery.
One success case is Harvey, a five-year-old Saint Bernard who was rescued by the Weardale Animal Sanctuary.
For example, a slobbering, big-headed Saint Bernard would never be mistaken for a prancing, curly-haired Poodle.
She moved to Saint Bernard's school when she was 16 and we lost touchJ.Venters, tel: 07850 640978
We are members al the Saint Bernard Club of Alaska, which plans all aspects of the weight pull.
News media watched as Companion participated in a physical therapy session and supervised residents as they brushed down Maggie, the facility's Saint Bernard. Several residents also approached Companion outside the physical therapy session, simply to chat with the professional displayed on its screen.
Now, at Orchard, we really hate to have to disagree with any of the leading thinkers of the 12th century, but we think Saint Bernard was missing the point on this one.
-KHNOPFF, Rue Saint Bernard (0032 2 534 20 04) is the latest hip restaurant, good service, great food and not too expensive at around pounds 42 per person for three courses with drinks.