Saint Francis


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Related to Saint Francis: Saint Francis Xavier

Francis, Saint,

or

Saint Francis of Assisi

(əsē`zē), 1182?–1226, founder of the Franciscans, one of the greatest Christian saints, b. Assisi, Umbria, Italy.

Early Life

His baptismal name was Giovanni (John), his father's name was Pietro de Bernardone; from his birth Giovanni di Bernardone was called Francesco (Francis) [Ital., =Frenchman], because his father, a successful cloth merchant, was a frequent traveler in France and admired much that he saw there. The name Francis (and its equivalents in other languages) owes its great popularity to St. Francis, for before him it was a name rarely given. Pietro de Bernardone was a wealthy merchant, and his son's early life was ordinary. At the age of 20, however, Francis was taken prisoner in a battle between Assisi and Perugia and spent a year in prison in Perugia.

Conversion

Two years after his return from Perugia, Francis set out for the wars in Apulia, but illness forced him home again. He then underwent a conversion that turned him from the worldly life he had been leading. He became markedly devout and ascetic, began dressing in rags, and went on a pilgrimage to Rome (1206). A series of events at that time revealed strikingly the characteristics that Francis was always to exemplify: humility, love of absolute poverty, singular devotion to others and to the Roman Church, and joyous religious fervor.

Founding of the Franciscan Order

In 1209, as he was hearing Mass, the words of Jesus in the Gospel (Mat. 10.7–10) bidding his apostles to go forth on their mission struck Francis as a call. So he set out, still a layman, to preach; when a small group had gathered about him, they went to Rome to see Pope Innocent IIIInnocent III,
b. 1160 or 1161, d. 1216, pope (1198–1216), an Italian, b. Anagni, named Lotario di Segni; successor of Celestine III. Innocent III was succeeded by Honorius III.
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, who gave them oral permission to live in the manner Francis had chosen. Thus began the Franciscan order of friars, an entirely new type of order in the church. They wandered about Umbria and through Italy preaching the Gospel, working to pay for their very simple needs. The expansion of the friars was very rapid. In 1212 St. ClareClare or Clara, Saint,
1193?–1253, Italian nun of Assisi, devoted from her youth to St. Francis, to whom she took a vow of poverty. She led a life of great austerity.
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 began to follow St. Francis, and the Poor Clares (Second Order of St. Francis), a cloistered, contempletive order was established. Francis not only sent the brothers abroad but went himself—to Dalmatia, to France, to Spain, and in 1219–20 to the Holy Land. On his way to Palestine he stopped at Damietta and preached to the sultan.

A growing dissension in his order recalled him from Palestine, and after his return (1221) a great assembly was held at the small chapel of the Porziuncola near Assisi, with which Francis's career was closely identified. There the saint gave up active leadership of the order, for he felt it had become too unwieldy to command. He continued his preaching and the composition of his rule and sponsored the Franciscan tertiaries (Third Order of St. Francis).

The Stigmata and His Death

Two years before his death (1224) the most famous event of his life occurred. He received the stigmatastigmata
[plural of stigma, from Gr.,=brand], wounds or marks on a person resembling the five wounds received by Jesus at the crucifixion. Some 300 cases of stigmatization have been attested, nearly all of them being women. St.
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; as he prayed on the Monte della Verna, he had a vision and was afflicted with the wounds of the Crucifixion, from which he suffered for the rest of his life. It is the first known appearance of the stigmata, one of the best attested, and the only one that is celebrated liturgically (on Sept. 17) in the Roman Catholic Church. Francis died Oct. 3, 1226. Two years later Pope Gregory IX, who had been his patron and friend, canonized him; his feast is Oct. 4.

Bibliography

The sources for the life of St. Francis are two lives by Thomas of CelanoThomas of Celano
, fl. 13th cent., Italian Franciscan friar. One of the first companions of St. Francis, he wrote the two principal lives of St. Francis, one for Gregory IX and the other for the minister general of the order. He was an early Franciscan missionary to Germany.
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 and the biography by St. BonaventureBonaventure or Bonaventura, Saint
, 1221–74, Italian scholastic theologian, cardinal, Doctor of the Church, called the Seraphic Doctor, b. near Viterbo, Italy. His original name was Giovanni di Fidanza.
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. Later medieval works are the Legenda trium sociorum, the Sacrum commercium, and the Speculum perfectionis. The Italian Fioretti di San Francesco [little flowers of St. Francis], a series of short anecdotes, has always been popular for its picture of St. Francis and his companions. It exemplifies in simplest form his love of nature and of humanity, a love so great that he preached one time to the sparrows at Alviano (he is often depicted in art preaching to the birds). His spirit also breathes in the Cantico del sole [hymn of the sun], which he may have written, and in the rules for his orders. Artistic and literary representations of St. Francis are innumerable; see L. Cunningham, comp., Brother Francis (1972); biographies by G. K. Chesterton (1924), J. H. Smith (1972), A. House (2001), V. Martin (2001), A. Vauchez (2009, tr. 2012), and A. Thompson (2012); study by E. A. Armstrong (1973).


Saint Francis,

city (1990 pop. 9,245), Milwaukee co., SE Wis., a residential suburb of Milwaukee on Lake Michigan; inc. 1951. There is meat processing and the manufacture of plastic and metal products. A power plant is there.

Saint Francis,

river, Canada: see Saint FrançoisSaint François
or Saint Francis.
1 River, 165 mi (266 km) long, rising in Lac St. François, SE Que., Canada, and flowing SW through Lac Aylmer to Sherbrooke, then NW past Drummondville to Lac St. Pierre of the St. Lawrence River.
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.

Saint Francis,

river, c.470 mi (760 km) long, rising in the hills of SE Missouri and flowing S through NE Arkansas to join the Mississippi River near Helena, Ark. The river forms part of the Arkansas–Missouri border. Wappapello Dam (completed 1941), near Poplar Bluff, Mo., forms a reservoir. The river area is popular for recreational activities.
References in periodicals archive ?
Delving deep into the historical accounts of Saint Francis, she wonders with an almost childlike innocence what Francis would have been thinking or feeling during significant portions of his life.
According to HIMSS Analytics, Saint Francis Hospital and Medical Center partnered with a specialized niche electronic medical record (EMR) software company and one large vendor to "build, test workflow, study, report, and exchange data between the two systems.
Critique: An impressive work of theological and historical scholarship, "When Saint Francis Saved the Church: How a Converted Medieval Troubadour Created a Spiritual Vision for the Ages" is exceptionally well written, deftly organized, and accessibly presented.
Propelled by stunning guitar work and soulful vocals their talents help complete the steady groove and unique expression for the Saint Francis sound.
The partnership stated that the centre will serve all three hospitals: Saint Francis Memorial Hospital and St.
I have a soft spot for Saint Francis Hospice, the nurses looked after my wife Teeny at home before she died from cancer in 2007.
The Levantine saint predated Saint Francis by one thousand years.
Basking in the Italian sunshine, its maze of cobbled mediaeval streets always leads you back to one place, the Basilica of Saint Francis, where the saint is buried.
DESCRIPTION: Health Care in the Franciscan Tradition - by Father Thomas Nairn, OFM, noted theologian and ethicist, is a non-credit course, available online, through the Institute for Contemporary Franciscan Life at Saint Francis University, Loretto, PA.
PESHAWAR, December 18, 2011 (Balochistan Times): Saint Francis School, Hayatabad organized a colourful annual Inter-House Athletics Sports Meet for the year 2010-11 here Saturday to highlight the significance of sports activities in grooming of a healthy society and active participation of the students in the event.
The Midwest 2011 Regional Conference will be held September 22-24, 2011, at the University of Saint Francis, Fort Wayne, Indiana.
At Saint Francis Hospital in Tulsa "NICHE" is the new buzzword.