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Saint Gall(sānt gôl, găl, gäl), Ger. Sankt Gallen, canton (1993 pop. 432,800), 777 sq mi (2,012 sq km), NE Switzerland. Bordering on Lake Constance in the north and on the Rhine River in the east, it surrounds the entire canton of Appenzell. The south is fairly mountainous, and the north is mainly a meadowland. Wine and fruit are produced. The canton is especially known for its lace embroideries and silk and cotton textiles. Other manufactures include textile machinery, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, pyrotechnics, matches, chocolate, optical goods, felt, and paper. Tourism is also a major industry, with many winter and summer resorts. Its inhabitants are mainly German-speaking. The canton and its capital city, Saint Gall (1993 pop. 72,000), take their name from the Benedictine abbey erected (8th cent.) on the site of the hermitage of St. Gall, an Irish monk, around which the town grew. The abbots of St. Gall, who also ruled AppenzellAppenzell
, canton, NE Switzerland. A rural and sparsely populated region, it is mainly a meadowland dotted with small farms. Appenzell retains many ancient customs and has been famous for centuries as a textile and embroidery center. It was ruled after the 11th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. , became princes of the Holy Roman Empire in the early 13th cent. The town became a free city of the Holy Roman Empire in 1311. Rebelling against the abbot, the city made an alliance with the Swiss Confederation (1454). The Reformation, accepted by the town but suppressed in the districts controlled by the abbot, brought about a long series of disturbances (notably the War of the ToggenburgToggenburg
, region in the Thur valley, St. Gall canton, NE Switzerland. Dairying, livestock breeding, and textile production are its main industries, and tourism is significant.
..... Click the link for more information. ) until 1718. In 1803 the town and the abbot's domains (secularized in 1798) were consolidated as a canton of the Swiss Confederation under Napoleon's Act of Mediation. One of the oldest scholastic centers north of the Alps, St. Gall has a library with a world-famous collection of medieval manuscripts. An episcopal see since 1846, it also has a noted 18th-century cathedral (formerly the abbey church). There are several museums, schools, and institutes.
Saint Gall,former Benedictine abbey, at St. Gall, Switzerland. Originating in a cell built c.614 by St. Gall, an Irish missionary (see Columban, SaintColumban, Saint
, c.540–615, Irish missionary to the continent of Europe, also called Columbanus. He was trained in the abbey at Bangor. He and 12 companions, including St. Gall, sailed to France (c.
..... Click the link for more information. ), it became an abbey under Charles Martel (8th cent.). It gained large landholdings and acquired universal fame as a center of learning in the early Middle Ages. In its library invaluable classic manuscripts were copied and preserved. Among the teachers were Notker BalbulusNotker Balbulus
, c.840–912, German monk and scholar, abbot of St. Gall (from 890). He composed liturgical poetry and music. Notker's life of Charlemagne preserves much of the matter of the Charlemagne legend. While Notker was abbot of St.
..... Click the link for more information. , Notker LabeoNotker Labeo
, c.950–1022, German monk, also known as Teŭtonĭcus. He was a teacher at St. Gall. Notker translated into Old High German Boethius' Consolations of Philosophy, Capella's Marriage of Mercury and Philology, Pope Gregory I's Morals,
..... Click the link for more information. , and four monks named EkkehardEkkehard
, name of several medieval German authors, monks of the monastery of St. Gall, which is in present-day Switzerland. Ekkehard I wrote the famous Latin epic Waltharius (c.930), celebrating the deeds of the Alemannic prince Walter. Ekkehard II, fl.
..... Click the link for more information. . The abbey was secularized in 1798. The present buildings date mainly from the 18th cent.
1. a canton of NE Switzerland. Capital: St Gall. Pop.: 455 200 (2002 est.). Area: 2012 sq. km (777 sq. miles)
2. a town in NE Switzerland, capital of St Gall canton: an important educational centre in the Middle Ages. Pop.: 72 626 (2000)