Saint Lawrence Seaway

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Saint Lawrence Seaway,

international waterway, 2,342 mi (3,769 km) long, consisting of a system of canals, dams, and locks in the St. Lawrence River and connecting channels between the Great Lakes; opened 1959. It provides passage for oceangoing vessels into central North America. The seaway includes a 27-ft (8-m) deep waterway, a canal, and seven locks between the port of Montreal and Lake Ontario; a 27-ft (8-m) channel and eight locks through the Welland Ship CanalWelland Ship Canal,
27.6 mi (44.4 km) long, SE Ont., Canada, connecting Lake Ontario with Lake Erie and bypassing Niagara Falls. Built between 1914 and 1932 by Canada to replace a canal opened in 1829, it can accommodate (minimum depth 27 ft/8 m) the largest lake ships.
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; and the Sault Sainte Marie CanalsSault Sainte Marie Canals,
two ship canals bypassing the rapids on the St. Marys River between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, at the cities of Sault Ste Marie, Mich. and Ont. The Canadian canal (1.4 mi/2.3 km long and 60 ft/18 m wide), which has one lock, was opened in 1895.
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 and locks.

The seaway has created a fourth seacoast accessible to the industrial and agricultural heartland of North America and has brought oceangoing vessels to lake ports such as Buffalo, Cleveland, Toledo, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, Duluth, and Toronto. The maximum vessel size is 730 ft (223 m) in length with a cargo capacity of 28,000 tons. The shipping season has been extended to 250 days (mid-April to mid-December) by increased use of icebreakers and air pumps to control ice formation in the locks. Iron ore, wheat, and coal are the principal cargoes carried on the seaway.

Construction of the project was authorized by Canada in 1951 and by the United States in 1954. The St. Lawrence Seaway Authority was charged with construction and maintenance of required facilities in Canada; the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation was responsible for facilities in the United States. Principal new locks on the St. Lawrence River section of the seaway are, from east to west, St. Lambert (18 ft/5.5 m lift); Côte Ste Catherine (30 ft/9.1 m), which enables vessels to bypass the Lachine Rapids; Lower and Upper Beauharnois (82 ft/25 m, including the Beauharnois Canal built in 1932); Bertrand H. Snell (45 ft/13.7 m); Dwight D. Eisenhower (38 ft/11.6 m); and Iroquois Guard Lock (3 ft/91 cm). Hydroelectric facilities were integrated with the project and developed and operated by the Power Authority of the State of New York and the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. One serious unexpected side effect of the seaway has been the introduction of invasive nonnative aquatic species, such as the zebra and quagga musselsmussel,
edible freshwater or marine bivalve mollusk. Mussels are able to move slowly by means of the muscular foot. They feed and breathe by filtering water through extensible tubes called siphons; a large mussel filters 10 gal (38 liters) of water per day.
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, into the Great Lakes and from there into other inland waterways.


See C. Mabee, The Seaway Story (1961), L. Thomas, Story of the St. Lawrence Seaway (1972), and G. Sussman, The St. Lawrence Seaway (1978).

Saint Lawrence Seaway

an inland waterway of North America, passing through the Great Lakes, the St Lawrence River, and connecting canals and locks: one of the most important waterways in the world. Length: 3993 km (2480 miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Georges is a founding member of the Government and chair of the Government's committee of the Saint Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation from its creation, as mentioned, from July of 1998 to August 2006.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation operates and maintains a safe, reliable, and efficient waterway for commercial and noncommercial vessels between the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation (SLSDC) is a wholly owned government corporation created by statute May 13, 1954, to construct, operate and maintain that part of the St.
Simpson, of New York, to be a Member of the Advisory Board of the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, vice Jay C.
Coast Guard, Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Highway Administration, Federal Railroad Administration, Federal Transit Administration, Maritime Administration, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Research and Special Programs Administration, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, Surface Transportation Board, Transportation Administrative Services Center, and Office of the Secretary.
NOTE TO EDITORS: Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation Media Fax Sheet is available by calling Kevin P.
25 /PRNewswire/ -- Following the completion of the first full rate review since 1987, the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation today proposed a rate increase for the 38 registered vessel pilots of the three U.
Parris, the sixth administrator of the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, today announced his resignation as the head of the agency to pursue other interests.
Led by Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation Administrator Stanford E.
Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation today demonstrated to a group of congressional staff members and regional media how vessels in the future will be tracked throughout the Seaway using technologies of the Global Positioning System (GPS).
21 /PRNewswire/ -- The Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation said it will host a series of three public meetings in February to obtain citizen and industry comments on the recent proposal for a Seaway toll freeze in 1994 and future consideration by the Seaway entities on total Seaway toll elimination.
The inspections are the result of a cooperative agreement signed recently by the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corp.