Saint Louis

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Louis, Saint:

see Louis IXLouis IX
or Saint Louis,
1214–70, king of France (1226–70), son and successor of Louis VIII. His mother, Blanche of Castile, was regent during his minority (1226–34), and her regency probably lasted even after Louis reached his majority; she was his
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, king of France.

See also: National Parks and Monuments (table)National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.

Saint Louis

(lo͞o`ĭs), city (1990 pop. 396,685), independent and in no county, E Mo., on the Mississippi River below the mouth of the Missouri; inc. as a city 1822. St. Louis has long been a major industrial and transportation hub. It is a leading rail and trucking center, and its airport and river port are among the country's busiest. Its industries produce a variety of manufactures, including chemicals; consumer goods; motor vehicles and parts; electronic components; foods and beverages; textiles; shoes; paper, plastic, and metal products; paints; soap and detergents; hardware; and pharmaceuticals. St. Louis is also a wholesale, banking, and financial center.

Institutions and Landmarks

The city has a noted symphony orchestra, a municipal opera, a large botanical garden, and over 30 educational institutions, including Saint Louis Univ., Washington Univ., three theological seminaries, and a branch of the Univ. of Missouri. The city's large Forest Park has an open-air theater, an art museum, a zoo, a planetarium, and the Jefferson memorial building, which recalls the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904 (the "St. Louis Fair"). Located in the city are two museums of contemporary art, the Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts and the Contemporary Art Museum. St. Louis is also home to the National League's Cardinals and the National Hockey League's Blues.

The major attraction is Gateway Arch (erected in 1965), a stainless steel arch, 630 ft (192 m) high, designed by Eero SaarinenSaarinen, Eero
, 1910–61, Finnish-American architect, grad. Yale (B.A., 1934), became an American citizen in 1940; son of Eliel Saarinen. Saarinen's reputation was established with his design of the General Motors Technical Center, Warren, Mich. (1951–55).
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. Standing on the banks of the Mississippi, it symbolizes St. Louis as the gateway to the West. The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, of which the arch is a part, was established in 1935 to preserve such historical buildings as the old courthouse (1839–64), where the Dred Scott CaseDred Scott Case,
argued before the U.S. Supreme Court in 1856–57. It involved the then bitterly contested issue of the status of slavery in the federal territories. In 1834, Dred Scott, a black slave, personal servant to Dr. John Emerson, a U.S.
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 was tried (see National Parks and MonumentsNational Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.
, table). The poet Eugene FieldField, Eugene,
1850–95, American poet and journalist, b. St. Louis. After working on several Midwestern newspapers, in 1883 he became a columnist for the Chicago Daily News (later the Record).
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 was born in St. Louis; his house is a museum. New Cathedral is one of the country's largest Roman Catholic cathedrals. The massive Union Station, once the country's largest railroad terminal, now houses shops and a hotel.


Saint Louis was once the site of significant Native American mounds built during the Mississippian period (see Mound BuildersMound Builders,
in North American archaeology, name given to those people who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mts.
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), but they were nearly all leveled as the city grew. In 1763 the location was chosen (1763) by Pierre LaClede for a fur-trading post. To honor Louis XV of France, it was named for his "name" saint, Louis IX of France. Transferred to the Spanish in 1770, it was retroceded to France in the time of Napoleon I and then sold to the United States along with the other lands of the Louisiana PurchaseLouisiana Purchase,
1803, American acquisition from France of the formerly Spanish region of Louisiana. Reasons for the Purchase

The revelation in 1801 of the secret agreement of 1800, whereby Spain retroceded Louisiana to France, aroused uneasiness in the United
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St. Louis, the gateway to the Missouri valley and the West, was the market and supply point for fur traders, mountain menmountain men,
fur trappers and traders in the Rocky Mts. during the 1820s and 30s. Their activities opened that region of the United States to general knowledge. Since the days of French domination there had been expeditions to the upper Missouri River, and in the early 19th
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, and explorers (including Lewis and Clark). The town grew rapidly after the War of 1812, when immigrants came in numbers to settle the West. St. Louis grew to be one of the greatest U.S. river ports; even after the railroads arrived in the 1850s, the river steamers remained extremely important.

The city was at the height of its population immediately following World War II. Between 1950 and 1990 the central city population decreased by half, and industry declined significantly in the same period. While many of the outlying suburbs grew steadily and developed industries, some, such as East Saint LouisEast Saint Louis
, city (1990 pop. 40,944), St. Clair co., SW Ill., on the Mississippi River opposite St. Louis; inc. 1859. Once a rail and transportation hub with stockyards and warehouses, East St.
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, have been marked by high unemployment and poverty.


See E. M. Coyle, Saint Louis (2d ed. 1970) and St. Louis Treasures (1986).

Saint Louis (Independent City), Missouri

1200 Market St
Saint Louis, MO 63103
Phone: (314) 622-3201
Fax: (314) 622-4061

On the central-eastern border of MO on the Mississippi River, 11 mi. below its confluence with the Missouri River. In 1763 site was selected by Pierre Laclede Liguest (1724?-78), partner in Maxent, Laclede and Company; settled 1764; chartered as city 1822. Busiest inland port on the Mississippi River; in early 1800s known as the "Gateway to the West." Manufacturing city (transportation equipment, automobile production); home of Anheuser-Busch, largest beer-producer in U.S. Name Origin: For Louis IX (1214-70), crusader king of France, canonized in 1297

Area (sq mi):: 66.15 (land 61.92; water 4.23) Population per square mile: 5561.40
Population 2005: 344,362 State rank: 3 Population change: 2000-20005 -1.10%; 1990-2000 -12.20% Population 2000: 348,189 (White 42.90%; Black or African American 51.20%; Hispanic or Latino 2.00%; Asian 2.00%; Other 3.00%). Foreign born: 5.60%. Median age: 33.70
Income 2000: per capita $16,108; median household $27,156; Population below poverty level: 24.60% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $24,685-$27,236
Unemployment (2004): 9.10% Unemployment change (from 2000): 0.90% Median travel time to work: 25.10 minutes Working outside county of residence: 41.40%
Cities with population over 10,000:
  • Saint Louis (343,279)

  • See other counties in .

    Saint Louis

    a port in E Missouri, on the Mississippi River near its confluence with the Missouri: the largest city in the state; university; major industrial centre. Pop.: 332 223 (2003 est.)
    References in periodicals archive ?
    The Saint Louis Chess Club always seeks to find innovative and exciting events to host.
    Women's Championship, the Chess Club and Scholastic Center of Saint Louis (CCSCSL) will host representatives from Norway and London at a special press conference to announce the establishment of a new international circuit of the world's leading professional chess players.
    That's the amount the Billiken Angels Network, an angel investment group out of Saint Louis University's John Cook School of Business, raised to help local start-ups.
    The Back Store, founded in 2010, currently operates 4 Saint Louis area mall stores at the Saint Louis Galleria, Chesterfield Mall, Plaza Frontenac, and West County Center.
    As difficult as it might have been to overcome a 16-point halftime deficit, that suddenly looked possible to Saint Louis when Dwayne Evans opened the second half with back-to-back layups in less than 30 seconds.
    Anheuser-Busch, a 2010 Habitat for Humanity Saint Louis Build Sponsor, also has donated $50,000 to help fund the project, which is taking place in the Old North Saint Louis neighborhood.
    The Saint Louis that emerged from the canonization process was in part a product of that dispute over royal and papal leadership, but the representation of Saint Louis hardly ends there.
    Gen Horiuchi's hands undulate like water wending its way around rocks as he describes his six years as artistic director of the Saint Louis Ballet.
    Outgoing Editor Joe Weixlmann's spectacular and indefatigable service to AAR for more than 27 years has left me with a rich, eminent, rock-steady legacy, so I am grateful to have Joe on hand as both "Editor Emeritus" of AAR and Provost of Saint Louis University to provide expert counsel.
    He was chairman of the May Company in Saint Louis, president of the Saint Louis Symphony Society, the player of a Guarnius violin, and a recipient of the French Legion of Honor (visible in the photo) for all the work he did in promoting French fashion in the United States.
    The causative agent, SLEV (formal name: Saint Louis encephalitis virus), is a member of the Flaviviridae family.
    She was on the faculty of the Saint Louis Conservatory and Schools for the Arts, now the Saint Louis Symphony Music School.

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