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(vertebrate zoology)
A family of urodele amphibians in the suborder Salamandroidea characterized by a long row of prevomerine teeth.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(European salamanders), a family of tailed amphibians lacking gills in the adult state. Lungs are present, and the eyelids are well developed. The vertebrae are opisthocoelous. Fertilization is internal, with the male depositing spermatophores. True salamanders are distributed in Europe, Asia, and North America. Of the 15 genera, the best known are Salamandra, Triturus, and Mertensiella.

The Salamandra have a flat and clumsy body, with a short tail lacking swim fringes. The parotid glands are well developed, and there is no spinal ridge. The coloration is black, sometimes with large yellow or orange-yellow spots. There are three species of Salamandra. S. Salamandra, whose body length reaches 70 cm, is found in the Western Ukraine. It lives in damp, shady places—in rodent burrows, in rock crevices, and in the forest litter. The female deposits as many as 72 larvae into the water; the larvae have branched gills. S. salamandra feeds on small invertebrates. The secretions of its skin glands are poisonous and may cause the death of small animals.

The genus Mertensiella has two species. M. caucasica is found in the USSR in southwestern Georgia. It is smaller than Salamandra but has a longer tail. The tail is marked by auto-tomy and the power of regeneration.

The name “salamander” is also applied to other amphibians, such as the giant salamander (Megalobatrachus japonicus), Plethodontidae, and Salamandrina teraigitata.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Brodie, "Rib Penetration and Associated Antipredator Adaptations in the Salamander Pleurodeles waltl (Salamandridae)," Copeia, vol.
Repeatability of mating behaviour in Montandon's newt, Triturus montandoni (Caudata Salamandridae).
Morphometry of metamorphosed smooth newts Triturus vulgaris (Amphibia: Salamandridae) with notes on limb, toe and tail injury frequency.
The pelvic kidney is composed of nephrons that function in urine formation, and possibly as secondary sexual characteristics in some salamanders (i.e., the Ambystomatidae, Plethodontidae, and Salamandridae; Aron, 1924; Adams, 1940; Norris, 1987; Siege; et al., 2010; Siegel et ai., in press).
tigrinum tigrinum Eastern tiger salamander X X X Unisexual Ambystoma X X X Plethodontidae Hemidactylium scutatum Four-toed salamander X X Plethodon cinereus Red-backed salanuuulrr X X X Proteidae Necturus maculosus Mudpuppy X Salamandridae Notophthalmus Eastern newt X X X viridescens viridescens Anura Bufonidae Bufo americanus American toad X X X B.
Characters of the diapophyses and parapophyses (presented above) and the overall size of the vertebrae omit the fossils from the Rhyacotritonidae, Ambystomatidae, Dicamptodontidae, and Salamandridae. The combination of traits displayed by CHIS 6840 and 6841 (and partly by CHIS 6842; presented above) appear to be autapomorphies for Batrachoseps (*), and do not occur on other plethodontid species; the three trunk vertebrae represent Batrachoseps.
This tapeworm appears to show little host specificity and a wide geographic range as it has now been reported to infect six members of the family Plethodontidae and two members of the family Salamandridae (Table 1) in various states, primarily in the upper Midwest and eastern United States.
This amalgamation has occurred several times independently (in the families Salamandridae and Plethodontidae) and would be homoplastic in any of the hypotheses of urodele phylogeny presented by Larson and Dimmick (1993).
Some low altitude Triturus montandonii (Amphibia: Salamandridae) population records from Oa s region, North-Western Romania.
tigrinum (Green), tiger salamander I Family Salamandridae (newts) Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque), eastern new I Family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders) Aneides aeneus (Cope & Packard), green salamander SE Desmognathus fuscus (Green), northern SE dusky salamander Eurycea cirrigera (Green), two-lined salamander C, S E.longicauda (Green), longtail salamander S E.lucifuga Rafinesque, cave salamander S Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel), four-toed N, C salamander Plethodon cinereus (Green), redback salamander I P.
Batrachoseps nigriventris, Ensatina eschscholtzii (Plethodontidae), and Taricha torosa (Salamandridae) from California.
Composition and structure of helminth communities of the salamanders, Aneides lugubris, Batrachoseps nigriventris, Ensatina eschscholtzii (Plethodontidae), and Taricha torosa (Salamandridae) from California.