Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Salerno(sälār`nō), city (1991 pop. 148,932), capital of Salerno prov., Campania, S Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, an inlet of the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is an agricultural, commercial, and industrial center. Manufactures include machinery, textiles, construction materials, and processed food. Originally a Greek settlement and later a Roman colony (founded 197 B.C.), Salerno became (6th cent.) a part of the duchy of Benevento and in the 9th cent. the seat of an independent principality, which fell to Robert Guiscard in 1076. In Sept., 1943, there was fierce fighting on the beaches near Salerno between the Allied landing forces and the Germans, who were pressed to retreat toward Naples. Of note in Salerno is the Sicilian-Norman cathedral (11th cent; redone in the 18th cent.), with the tomb of Pope Gregory VII and an impressive 12th-century pulpit. The famous medical school of Salerno (founded in the 9th cent., closed in the early 19th cent.) is believed to have been the first of its kind and reached its height in the 12th cent.
a city in southern Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Capital of Salerno Province, Campania. Population, 154,500 (1971). Salerno has machine-building, chemical, food, tobacco, textile, and clothing industries; building materials are also produced. The city has a port with a freight turnover of 257,000 tons (1971). It has a university (1944).
Salerno is mentioned by classical authors as a Roman colony (from 197 B.C.). In the 11th to 13th centuries, the city was known for its medical school—the first secular medical school in Europe—where instruction was based on Greek and Arab medical achievements and where great importance was placed on experimentation and observations. In the 12th and 13th centuries Salerno was an important handicraft and commercial center. In 1647 and 1648 there was a popular uprising against Spanish domination in the city, which, together with all of southern Italy, had come under the control of Aragon in 1442. During World War II, Salerno was the disembarkation site for the Allied forces in Italy (September 1943).