Salivation


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salivation

[‚sal·ə′vā·shən]
(medicine)
Mild mercury poisoning suffered by workers in amalgamation plants.
(physiology)
Excessive secretion of saliva.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Salivation

 

the secretion and release of saliva into the oral cavity. Salivation is a reflex action in animals and man, arising in response to unconditioned and conditioned stimuli. It involves stimulation of the receptors of any of the centripetal nerves of the oral cavity or the pharynx—the lingual branches of the trigeminal or glossopharyngeal nerve or the branches of the superior laryngeal nerve—by food or by such objectionable substances as acids, alkalies, or sand. This stimulation results in simultaneous unconditioned salivation from the parotid and submaxillary glands. Salivation may also be a natural conditioned reflex arising from the sight or smell of food. When such conditioned stimuli as light and sound accompany the consumption of food, they eventually become signals evoking the conditioned reflex of salivation. This discovery enabled I. P. Pavlov to use the salivary glands as a model for the study of higher nervous activity in man and animals.

Excitation of the receptors of the oral cavity, eyes, ears, and olfactory organs is transmitted along the centripetal nerves to the center of salivation—the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and medulla oblongata. Here, the excitation is transmitted to the centrifugal parasympathetic nerves (the chorda tympani and the auriculotemporal nerves) and to the sympathetic nerves that proceed to the secretory portions of the salivary glands. Electrostimulation of the chorda tympani causes copious secretion of liquid saliva from the submaxillary glands, and stimulation of a sympathetic nerve causes limited secretion of viscid saliva rich in organic matter.

Salivation is also affected by hormones of the pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, and gonads. On an empty stomach, humans secrete saliva continuously at a basal rate of 0.24–0.9 milliliters per min. Dogs salivate every 1½ to 2 hr, and in ruminants the basal rate of secretion increases during ingestion and rumination. For purposes of examination, human saliva is collected from the salivary glands with a Krasnogorskii-Lashley capsule attached to the opening of the salivary duct. Fistulas are created in the salivary ducts of animals to study the secretion of animal saliva.

Salivation is affected by emotional excitement and by various pathological states. For example, excessive salivation (ptyalism) occurs in nausea, trigeminal neuralgia, and stomatitis, and decreased salivation (hypoptyalism) in some infectious diseases and diabetes.

REFERENCES

Pavlov, I. P. Lektsii o rabote glavnykh pishchevaritel’nykh zhelez, Poln. sobr. soch., 2nd ed., vol. 2, book 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Abuladze, K. S. lzuchenie reflektornoi deiatel’nosti sliunnykh i sleznykh zhelez. Moscow, 1953.
Babkin, B. P. Sekretornyi mekhanizm pishchevaritel’nykh zhelez. Leningrad, 1960. (Translated from English).
Semenov, N. V. Biokhimicheskie komponenty i konstanty zhidkikh sredi tkanei cheloveka. Moscow, 1971.

V. D. SUKHODOLO

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dawes, O'Connor, & Aspen (2000) reported that collections of salivation to citric acid were highest for cold presentations (between 0[degrees]C to 8[degrees]C), and lower rates of salivation were produced at presentations above 25[degrees]C.
Most frequent signs noted in the study were nausea and vomiting in 93% followed by Salivation 91% and Miosis 87%, other frequent clinical features noted in this study are also comparable with other studies likes Tahir MH et al.
The results showed that 65 Percent patients had normal salivation rate, as compared to 35 Percent belonging to the hyposalivatory group.
Pavlovian responses to food - first noted by the salivation of dogs - is not new either.
Less virus was transmitted by mosquitoes in vivo (geometric mean 11 PFU) than was found for comparable times of salivation in vitro (mean saliva titer 74 PFU).
Gastrointestinal signs, such as acute vomiting, are usually the first indication of the effects of the algae but other symptoms associated with this type of poisoning include salivation, shaking, convulsions and collapse.
Symptoms of poisoning include diarrhea, vomiting, salivation, convulsions, and--in extreme cases--death.
Chronic wasting disease leads to progressive loss of body function, behavioral changes, excessive salivation and death.
The most common side effects of the TAP appliance were excessive salivation, muscle and tooth discomfort on initial use, excessive mouth dryness, and temporary bite change.
This often has to be moved surgically or sometimes it can be flushed out by encouraging salivation, e.g.
One patient each experienced lymphocytosis, increased salivation, cough, fatigue, and palpitations (2.7%).
After 14 days of exposure to cannabis, the rodents received a drug that blocks cannabis activity and results in signs of withdrawal, such as salivation and compulsive grooming.