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A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae that cause enteric infections with or without blood invasion. Most species are motile, utilize citrate, decarboxylate ornithine, form gas from glucose, and produce hydrogen sulfide. Salmonellae do not ferment lactose, produce indole, or split urea; the Voges-Proskauer reaction is negative.



a genus of nonsporogenous rod-shaped bacteria that are 1–7 μm long and approximately 0.3–0.7 μm wide. It includes gram-negative facultative aerobes, most of which are motile because they are peritrichous. Salmonella was named in honor of the American pathologist D. E. Salmon (1850–1914).

Salmonellas form round grayish white colonies on solid nutrient mediums and an opacity and sediment and sometimes a film when grown in broth. They ferment carbohydrates, including glucose, mannose, xylose, and dextrin, and alcohols, including inositol and dulcite; an acid and sometimes a gas are formed as well.

Salmonellas generally inhabit the intestine of animals and man. Most belong to pathogenic species that produce various antigens, including the thermolabile flagellate H antigen and the O and V antigens, which consist of carbohydrates. There are more than 20 species in the genus, with more than 1,200 serotypes that differ in antigenic structure and biochemical properties. Among salmonellas are the causative agents of typhoid fever and paratyphoid in humans and salmonelloses in humans and animals.


References in periodicals archive ?
Excluded from this report are serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi, for which the only reservoir is humans and which account for <1% of Salmonella infections in the United States (6,11,12).
Reptile-associated salmonella infection in humans is more likely to present with systemic disease than food-borne infections.
Like other microorganisms, increasing drug resistance is a challenge in treating Salmonella infection.
In the present study, we describe the gene expression response in the intestine of young chickens after a Salmonella infection.
However, this study shows that increased susceptibility to salmonella infections is due to a very specific immunological effect which does not affect the immune system as a whole," Riley explained.
Whether the nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella infections were acquired internationally or domestically remains to be studied, Dr.
coli O157:H7 infections has declined 42 percent since 1996, while Campylobacter infections have dropped 28 percent and Salmonella infections have decreased by 17 percent.
About 40,000 salmonella infections are reported in the United States each year.
Sixteen percent were resistant to the drug of choice for treating Salmonella infections in children.
Overall, salmonella infections increased 20 percent from 1998 to 1999 and researchers are unsure why.
A 1999 Danish study published in The New England Journal of Medicine links the common practice of feeding livestock low levels of antibiotics to multidrug-resistant salmonella infections in humans.