Salmonella

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Salmonella

[‚sal·mə′nel·ə]
(microbiology)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae that cause enteric infections with or without blood invasion. Most species are motile, utilize citrate, decarboxylate ornithine, form gas from glucose, and produce hydrogen sulfide. Salmonellae do not ferment lactose, produce indole, or split urea; the Voges-Proskauer reaction is negative.

Salmonella

 

a genus of nonsporogenous rod-shaped bacteria that are 1–7 μm long and approximately 0.3–0.7 μm wide. It includes gram-negative facultative aerobes, most of which are motile because they are peritrichous. Salmonella was named in honor of the American pathologist D. E. Salmon (1850–1914).

Salmonellas form round grayish white colonies on solid nutrient mediums and an opacity and sediment and sometimes a film when grown in broth. They ferment carbohydrates, including glucose, mannose, xylose, and dextrin, and alcohols, including inositol and dulcite; an acid and sometimes a gas are formed as well.

Salmonellas generally inhabit the intestine of animals and man. Most belong to pathogenic species that produce various antigens, including the thermolabile flagellate H antigen and the O and V antigens, which consist of carbohydrates. There are more than 20 species in the genus, with more than 1,200 serotypes that differ in antigenic structure and biochemical properties. Among salmonellas are the causative agents of typhoid fever and paratyphoid in humans and salmonelloses in humans and animals.

A. A. IMSHENETSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
This gene's diverse genetic background suggests that emergence of the [bla.sub.CMY-2]-producing Salmonella Heidelberg strain in the Netherlands results not only from expansion of a single clone but from multiclonal dissemination of the strain and horizontal transfer of plasmids encoding the [bla.sub.CMY-2] gene.
We analyzed a subset of ESC-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg isolates to determine the size and conjugation frequency of plasmids carrying extended-spectrum and AmpC [beta]-lactamases.
We attribute the increase of ESC-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg isolates in the Netherlands to the frequent occurrence of isolates carrying IncI1/ST12 plasmids encoding [bla.sub.CMY-2] in food-producing animals and poultry products imported from Brazil.
Most ESC-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg isolates in our study had profiles (XbaI.0251, XbaI.1966, XbaI.1968, and XbaI.1970) indistinguishable from those of previous epidemic types (JF6X01.0022, JF6X01.0326, JF6X01.0258, and JF6X01.0045) that caused outbreaks and showed potency for bloodstream infections (16).
Salmonella Heidelberg is frequently isolated from retail meats and predominantly from poultry products; in 2010, 38% of Salmonella Heidelberg strains isolated from retail chicken breasts were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class (2).
The objective of this study is to highlight the correlation between ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from retail chicken and the incidence of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections in humans across Canada.
The yearly proportion of retail chicken samples contaminated with ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg (or E.
coli, chicken Salmonella Heidelberg, and human Salmonella Heidelberg isolates from the province of Quebec.
Across Canada, the annual percentage of chicken samples contaminated with ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg correlated strongly with the annual incidence of human cases related to this type of isolate (r = 0.91, p<0.0001) (Figure 1).