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(vertebrate zoology)
A family of soft-rayed fishes in the suborder Salmonoidei including the trouts, salmons, whitefishes, and graylings.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(salmon), a family of fishes of the order Clupeiformes. The body is covered with thick scales, and the lateral line is complete. The dorsal fin has fewer than 17 rays; there is a fatty fin. The stomach is a widened loop of the intestine. The oviducts are either rudimentary or absent.

The Salmonidae include freshwater and anadromous fishes of the northern hemisphere; a number of species have become acclimatized to waters of the southern hemisphere. Spawning occurs only in freshwaters. There are nine genera: Salmo, Oncorhynchus, Salvelinus, Hucho, Brachymystax (with the single species Brachymystax lenok), Cristivomer, Salmothymus, Stenodus (one species Stenodus leucichthys, with the subspecies Stenodus 1. nelma), and Coregonus.

Members of seven genera are found in the USSR. The genus Salmo has seven species (according to other classifications, ten), four or five of which are encountered in the Soviet Union. The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), freshwater varieties of the salmon trout (S. trutta) the Sevan trout (S. ischchan), and the mykiss (S. mykiss) are found in the Arctic Ocean, in the northern waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and in the northern parts of the Black, Caspian, and Aral seas.

The genus Oncorhynchus has seven or eight species, six of which are found in the USSR. The chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha—the largest member of the genus), the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) the chum salmon (O. keta) the coho salmon (O. kisutch) the sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and the masu salmon (O. masu) inhabit the northern Pacific Ocean and the adjoining waters of the Arctic Ocean. The genus Cristivomer has only one species, the lake trout (Cristivomer namaycush) which is found in North American lakes and measures up to 1 m in length. The genus Salmothymus has two species: Salmothymus ochridans is found in Lake Ohrid in Yugoslavia, and S. obtusirostris inhabits the lakes of Dalmatia.

The Salmonidae are commercially valuable fishes. They are caught for food and have been acclimatized to various regions. The world catch is 10 million quintals per year (approximately 3 percent of the total catch of marine fish). Salmon are used as food in raw, salted, and smoked form; they are also canned. The salty red caviar from species of the genus Oncorhynchus is particularly valuable. Several species, such as the chum salmon, the sockeye salmon, and the pink salmon, are decreasing in number.


Berg, L. S. Ryby presnykh vod SSSR i sopredel’nykh stran, 4th ed., part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Promyslovye ryby SSSR: Opisanie ryb. (Text for the collection of colored drawings offish.) Moscow, 1949.
Nikol’skii, G. V. Chastnaia ikhtiologiia, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Marine, estuarine, and diadromous fish stocks at risk of extinction in North America (exclusive of Pacific salmonids).
This assessment of limited Chumash use of salmonids is consistent with an observed trend in the increasing use of salmonids by native peoples from southern to northern latitudes on the Pacific Coast, peaking in areas where hydrologic conditions enabled larger and more dependable runs (Lufkin 1991: Taylor 1999; see also regional chapters in Jones and Klar 2007; Jones and Perry 2012).
Freshwater salmonid aquaculture can be a relevant source of anthropogenic pollution to otherwise undisturbed stream ecosystems, particularly when aquaculture operations are located in the headwaters of river networks [22].
An increase in redd density upstream dams indicates that fish ways have reestablished connectivity for salmonids in Vilnia and Siesartis rivers.
High levels of radioactive exposure in salmonids cause sterility (13), and there is no evidence that the exceedingly low levels present in the Columbia River could cause the type of phenotypic changes noted.
(1998) found that placing salmon carcasses in a stream increased the proportion of marine-derived nitrogen (15N) in the muscle tissue of juvenile salmonids up to 39%.
Salmonids cannot be sold or bought if they are "unclean" - a term used to describe a fish that is about to spawn or has recently spawned.
"There is concern that smallmouth bass may negatively impact other native species, specifically salmonids. Smallmouth bass and salmonids have overlapping habitats.
It causes extensive skin erosion and hemorrhaging in salmonids (Bravo, 2003), negatively affects fish physiology during the advanced stages of parasite development (Gonzalez et al., 2015) and reduces resistance to other diseases, such as Piscirickettsiosis (Lhorente et al., 2014).
The colony relocated to a new nesting site 4 km away from the original location, still along the same river, but in a direction away from another major migration corridor for anadromous salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), an important prey resource for great blue herons (Butler, 1997).