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Salvador(săl`vədôr', Port. səlvəthôr`) or
São Salvador(souN), city (1991 pop. 2,075,273), capital of Bahia state, E Brazil, a port on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the commercial center of a fertile crescent (the Recôncavo) and a shipping point for the cacao district to the south. Other exports include tobacco, sugar, hardwoods, industrial diamonds, oil, and aluminum. Salvador is also a fashionable tourist center. Despite the abundance of electrical energy, industrialization has proceeded slowly. Food processing, metallurgy, and woodworking are leading industries. The city, built on a peninsula, is divided into two sections connected by graded roads, elevators, and cable cars. As the main center of candomblé, which mixes Catholic and African religious beliefs and dieties, Salvador is known as the "Black Rome."
Founded in 1549, Salvador flourished with the development of sugar plantations and became the leading center of colonial Brazil. The resulting influx of black African slaves made the area notable for its African heritage in music, dance, folk customs, religion, and cuisine. Briefly under Dutch occupation (1624–25), the city was the capital of the Portuguese possessions in America until 1763. It still contains many buildings and fortifications from the colonial period. In the early 19th cent. it was a center of the Brazilian independence movement. In 1912 it was bombarded and heavily damaged by federal forces during factional struggles.
Salvador's intellectual and cultural vitality was manifested by such famous bahianos as Ruy BarbosaBarbosa, Ruy
, 1849–1923, Brazilian jurist, writer, and statesman. He was largely responsible for the republican constitution of Brazil and was the champion of law and liberty under recurrent dictatorships.
..... Click the link for more information. , the statesman; Antônio de Castro AlvesAlves, Antônio de Castro
, 1847–71, Brazilian poet. A disciple of Victor Hugo, he came to fame with Espumas flutuantes [tossing spume] (1871). Despite a wild bohemian lifestyle, he was intensely nationalist and socially conscious.
..... Click the link for more information. , the poet; and Jorge AmadoAmado, Jorge
, 1912–2001, Brazilian novelist. Amado's works deal largely with the poor urban black and mulatto communities of Bahia. His early novels, such as The Violent Land (1942, tr. 1945), are marked by grim and violent realism.
..... Click the link for more information. , the novelist. Points of interest include a 16th-century cathedral (one of the city's many notable churches), two universities, art and other museums, and agricultural institutes. Salvador has a naval base.
(also known as Bahia), a city in northeastern Brazil and capital of the state of Bahia. Population, including suburbs, 1,007,200 (1970).
A port on the Atlantic Ocean, Salvador has a railroad station and is served by an international airport, located in Santo Amaro. It is the most important economic center in northeastern Brazil. There are chemical, cement, tobacco, food, and cottoncloth industries. Exports include cacao, tobacco, sugar, coffee, and hard woods. Enterprises of the metallurgical, petrochemical, and other industries are under construction (1974) nearby.
Founded in 1549, Salvador is situated on a slope that falls steeply to the sea. It is divided into two sections: the upper section, which consists primarily of public and residential buildings, and the lower section, dominated by port structures, warehouses, and markets. Many old buildings have been preserved, including the forts of Monte Serrat (1586), Santa Maria (1696), and Saõ Marcelo (1623). Most notable among the baroque buildings are the Monastery of Saõ Francisco de Assis (first half of the 18th century) with a church (1710, architects M. de Quaresma and others), the church of the convent of the Third Order of St. Francis (1703–40, architect M. G. Ribeiro), and the Saldanha Palace (c. 1720). Twentieth-century structures include the Caramuru Building (1946, architect P. Antonis Ribeiro), the Bank of Bahia (1949, architect P. Antonis Ribeiro), and a theater (1960). There is a museum of ancient art and the Bahia State Art Museum. Salvador also has a university, founded in 1946.