Samanid

Samanid

(sämä`nĭd), Muslim Persian dynasty that ruled (819–1005) in KhorasanKhorasan
or Khurasan
, region and former province (1991 pop. 6,013,200), c.125,000 sq mi (323,750 sq km), NE Iran. Mashhad is the chief city; other cities include Sabzevar, Bojnurd, and Neyshabur. It is mainly mountainous and arid.
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 and Transoxiana as vassals of the AbbasidsAbbasid
or Abbaside
, Arab family descended from Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad. The Abbasids held the caliphate from 749 to 1258, but they were recognized neither in Spain nor (after 787) W of Egypt.
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; founded by Saman-Khuda, of old Persian aristocracy. The Samanids were one of the first purely indigenous dynasties to rule in Persia following the Muslim Arab conquest. Not until the reign (892–907) of Saman-Khuda's great-grandson, Ismail I, did Samanid power become extensive. In 900, Ismail defeated the SaffaridsSaffarid
, a dynasty of Sistan that flourished in the 9th cent., ruling (867–1495) in E Persia. Its founder, Yaqub ibn Layth, d. 879?, was a coppersmith who raised an army during a time of unrest and instability, conquering his native province of Sistan by 867.
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 in Khorasan, while his brother was the governor of Transoxiana; thus, Samanid rule was acclaimed over the combined regions. Persian influence was felt immediately, and the cities of BukharaBukhara
, city (1991 pop. 231,000), capital of Bukhara region, Uzbekistan, in the Zeravshan River valley. On the Shkhrud irrigation canal system, it is the center of a large cotton district and has textile mills as well as cotton-ginning industries and a large karakul skin
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 (the Samanid capital) and SamarkandSamarkand
, city (1991 pop. 395,000), capital of Samarkand region, in Uzbekistan, on the Trans-Caspian RR. It is one of the oldest existing cities in the world and the oldest of Central Asia.
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 became centers of Persian art and literature; industries included pottery making and bronze casting. After 950, Samanid power weakened, but was briefly revitalized under Nuh II, who ruled from 976 to 997. However, with the oncoming encroachment of Muslim Turks into the Abbasid Empire, the Samanids were effectively defeated; in 999, Bukhara fell under a combined force of Ghaznavids and Qarakhanids. Ismail II, d. 1005, last ruler of the dynasty, briefly fought (1000–1005) to retain Samanid territory, until he was assassinated.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ferdowsi began the composition of the Shahnameh's approximately 100,000 lines, a work several times the length of Homer's Iliad, in 977, when the eastern Iran was under Samanid rule.
Now the new technology can be tested in the Poi Kalan complex Gaukushon, Kukeldash, Nodir Devonbegi madrasas Toqi Sarrofon, Toki Telpakfurushon, Toki Zargaron domed bazaars at the Lyab-i Khauz square, at the monument to Nasreddin Afandi in the Samanid Mausoleum Arch Citadel and the Jewish Synagogue.
Mahmud's father Sabuktagin was a slave-general turned Emir under the disintegrating Samanid Sultanate.
Visitors can also explore a treasure trove of 400 silver dirham coins from the Abbasid Caliphate of Iraq, the Samanid dynasty, and the Saffarid dynasty, discovered in Sidamah in 2005.
Highlights of loans from the region include a prehistoric stone tool dating back to 350,000 BCE, a milestone indicating the distance from Makkah in Kufic inscriptions, a funerary stele from Makkah dating back to 700-900 CE (100-300 AH) from the Saudi Commission for Tourism & National Heritage, a collection of over 400 silver Dirhams Coins from the Abbasid Caliphate of Iraq, the Samanid Dynasty and the Saffarid Dynasty discovered in Sidamah (Al Waqba) in 2005 CE (1425 AH) from the National Museum - Sultanate of Oman, and an 8000-year-old two-headed figure from Jordan's Department of Antiquities called Ain Ghazal Statue.
The National Museum of Oman has also made available a collection of over 400 silver dirham coins from the Abbasid Caliphate of Iraq, the Samanid Dynasty and the Saffarid Dynasty, while Jordan's Department of Antiquities has sent an 8,000-year-old, two-headed figure known as the Ain Ghazal Statue.
This person criticized al-Razi for prescribing mulberries after watermelons in the concrete case of Ahmad ibn Isma'il (849-907), the founder of the Samanid dynasty that ruled Transoxania and was largely based in Bukhara.
Ismail Somoni was a 10th-century Samanid amir whom elites have embraced as a national hero in post-independence Tajikistan.
Hitherto unpublished is an almost complete set of tiny Samanid ivory chessmen from Nishapur, dated to the 10th-nth century or even earlier.
the people of tajikistan draw their cultural identity from the samanid dynasty of the Abbasid period.
A group of experts believe that this castle dates back to the Samanid period centuries ago and was renovated several times in the past.
Ghaznavi rulers of the city's cultural centers and art, and the revival of Persian art are assigned by the Samanid era.