Since 1999, the Sangro Valley Project has searched for remains of the Samnites
at Monte Pallano in Italy's Abruzzo region.
And if we read the transmitted text of Livy 9.40.2-3 without Conway and Walters' restoration, the Samnite
silver army is accordingly placed on the right.
Firstly, he appears to play a very incidental role in the proceedings: the most important thing about him is his inauspicious appearance, which may recall the similar physical disfigurement of the turncoat Roman governor Sertorius, who had also been described as `effosso oculo', `one-eyed', by Sallust at Histories 1.88.(30) Livy's soldiers referred to themselves as `caeci, `blind', when they fell into the Samnite
trap, thus implying the metaphorical blindness of their commanders, but they were not actually being led by one-eyed consuls.
Born around 333, reputedly to a humble plebeian family; led an army to victory over the Samnites
at Aquilonia (293); elected consul (290), he quelled a revolt by the Sabines and directed the partial drainage of Lake Velinus (near Terni) (289); elected to replace consul L.
Principal war: First Samnite
War (343-341); Latin War (340-388).
The more extreme versions of the theory that Rome conquered the world just to be on the safe side, are rejected by all, but Stephen Oakley suggests that the first conquests (perhaps down to the Samnite
Wars) were |an extension of [an early] defensive mentality' (11: p.
Principal wars: Second Samnite
War (327-304); Etruscan War (311-309).
Norbanus at Mount Tifata near Capua (autumn 83), and wintered nearby; advanced north to Rome and defeated the Marians and their Samnite
allies at the battle of the Colline Gate then just outside the city (spring 82); as dictator (82-81) and both dictator and consul (80) he carried out many reforms, strengthening the senate and the criminal courts, gutting the tribunate's powers, and forcibly settling his veterans in Italy; retired suddenly from public life (79) and died on his estate in the Campania (78).
Barabas's opening speech refers to his equal degree of comfort and familiarity with Persia, the Samnites
(Southern Italy), Uz (bordering Palestine), Arabia, Spain, Greece, India, the Moors, Egypt, Alexandria, and 'Candy-shore' (Crete).
"May Pyrrhus and the Samnites
believe these teachings as long as they are our enemies".
Rome had incorporated the territories of many peoples, Etruscans, Greeks and various Italic peoples; most notably Oscan-speakers such as Samnites
, into their state, and for a while had an even military alliance with them.