Samoilov, Aleksandr Filippovich
Born Mar. 26 (Apr. 7), 1867, in Odessa; died July 22, 1930, in Moscow. Soviet physiologist.
Samoilov graduated from the University of Dorpat (now Tartu). From 1893 to 1896 he worked in I. P. Pavlov’s laboratory, and from 1896 to 1903 he worked with I. M. Sechenov. He became a professor at the University of Kazan in 1903 and at Moscow University in 1924.
Samoilov developed the physical and chemical trend in physiology. He developed unique methods for investigating the physiology of the heart and neuromuscular apparatus. His principal works dealt with electrophysiology, specifically with the use of the capillary electrometer and the thread galvanometer, which he perfected. These works were known worldwide.
Samoilov was one of the founders of electrocardiography. He determined the temperature coefficient for the transmission of a nerve impulse from a nerve to a muscle and demonstrated that this is a chemical process (1925). In 1927, together with M. A. Kiselev, he experimentally proved the humoral nature of central inhibition. Samoilov was awarded the V. I. Lenin Award in 1930.