Samoyed

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Samoyed

(săm`əyĕd), breed of hardy, muscular working dogworking dog,
classification used by breeders and kennel clubs to designate dogs raised by humans to herd cattle and sheep, as draft animals, as message dispatchers in wartime, in police and rescue work, as guardians of persons and property, or as guides (see guide dog) for the
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 developed in N Siberia many centuries ago. It stands from 19 to 23.5 in. (48.3–59.7 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 35 to 65 lb (15.9–29.5 kg). The weather-resistant double coat is composed of dense, woolly underhairs and a long, harsh, curl-free outer coat that stands straight out from the body. It may be pure white, white and biscuit, pure biscuit, or cream in color. Raised by the Samoyed people near the White Sea thousands of years before the Christian era, this hardy arctic dog was used to herd reindeer and haul sledges, at the same time being welcomed into the home as a family companion. Today the Samoyed is popular principally as a show dog and pet. See dogdog,
carnivorous, domesticated wolf (Canis lupus familiaris) of the family Canidae, to which the jackal, fox, and tanuki also belong. The family Canidae is sometimes referred to as the dog family, and its characteristics, e.g.
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.
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Samoyed

1. a member of a group of peoples who migrated along the Russian Arctic coast and now live chiefly in the area of the N Urals: related to the Finns
2. the languages of these peoples, related to Finno-Ugric within the Uralic family
3. a Siberian breed of dog of the spitz type, having a dense white or cream coat with a distinct ruff, and a tightly curled tail
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(3) There is a new theory that the first breakup of Proto-Uralic was not between Samoyedic and Finno-Ugric but Samoyedic-Ugric and Finno-Permic (Hakkinen 2007, 2012).
Apart from these dominant families, there is also the Yukaghir language (spoken by about 11 people in 1994), related to Samoyedic, and the Yuk language of the Siberian Inuit (a little over a thousand people), which they share with the Yuk of Alaska.
paper on "Ob-Ugric Syntax before 1850: the Case of Castren", or "On Clitics in Nenets" to the symposium "The Syntax of Samoyedic and Ob-Ugric Languages".
First, the linguistic diversity on the Taimyr Peninsula is clearly greater than the Siberian average because speakers whose languages belong to four different language families, Tundra Nenets, Forest Enets, Tundra Enets, Nganasan (all Samoyedic, Uralic), Dolgan (Turkic), Evenki (Tungusic), Russian (Indo-European) as well as Taimyr Pidgin Russian aka Govorka have met.
It is also preserved in Sami (-m), Finnic languages, Mari (-m, -ma, -ma, -ma), Komi (Zyrian), Udmurt, Mansi, Khanty (-m in all of them) and in Hungarian, too (-m: alom 'litter', sulyom' water-chestnut', izom 'muscle', orom 'summit', tetem 'cadaver'; -v: szm 'heart', o/o: apo 'old man', odo > odu 'hollow, den'), and in Samoyedic languages.
Among the two hundred languages, there are several of the Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic languages as well: Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, Karelian (with dialects), Zyrian, Votyak, Cheremis, Vogul and Ostyak (with dialects), and Mordvin of course.
This is found in some of the Samoyedic languages examined and is clearly connected to the fact that these languages express polar interrogation in their verbal morphology (interrogative mood).
Castren's Samoyedic grammar, a part of North Samoyedic prohibitive stems was very restrictedly used in his time.
Samoyedic languages commonly use three cases for the direct object: *m-accusative, unmarked nominative and rarely *n-genitive.
In all Ugric and Samoyedic languages the definite conjugation does really exist (see also Kortvely 2005 : 32-36, 39-42).
In his comparative Samoyedic grammar Castren presented personal pronouns for Enets (then known as Jenissei-Samojedisch) in one table, but did not explain his notational conventions concerning 2Sg and 3Sg forms (Castren 1854 : 350-353): Jenissei-Samojedisch Sg Du Pl 1P mod'i mod'i' mod'i' 2P tod'i (u) tod'i' tod'i' 3P nitoda, bu nitodi' nitodu'
By contrast, all Samoyedic languages clearly have a category of unmarked object next to an indicative finite verb, and in three of these: (Tundra) Nenets, (6) Enets and Selkup this form expresses the definiteness or the focus function of the object.