Samuel Butler


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Butler, Samuel,

1612–80, English poet and satirist. During the Puritan Revolution he served Sir Samuel Luke, a noted officer of Cromwell. After the restoration of Charles II, he wrote his famous mock-heroic poem Hudibras (pub. in 3 parts, 1663, 1664, 1678), an envenomed satire against the Puritans in which Luke was the model for the butt Sir Hudibras. He was also the author of other verse satires, some of them not published until the 20th cent.

Bibliography

See J. Wilders' edition of Hudibras (1967); biography by T. Penelhum (1985); studies by H. DeQuehen, ed. (1979) and T. L. Jeffers (1981).


Butler, Samuel,

1835–1902, English author. He was the son and grandson of eminent clergymen. In 1859, refusing to be ordained, he went to New Zealand, where he established a sheep farm and in a few years made a modest fortune. He returned to England in 1864 and devoted himself to a variety of interests, including art, music, biology, and literature. Besides exhibiting some of his paintings (1868–76) at the Royal Academy, he composed several works in collaboration with Henry Festings Jones, among them the Handelian Narcissus: A Dramatic Cantata (1888). His Erewhon, in which he satirized English social and economic injustices by describing a country in which manners and laws were the reverse of those in England, appeared in 1872. It brought Butler immediate literary fame. Erewhon Revisited was published in 1901. Butler opposed Darwin's explanation of evolution, finding it too mechanistic, and he expounded his own theories in Evolution Old and New (1879), Unconscious Memory (1880), and Luck or Cunning as the Main Means of Organic Modification? (1887). In his single novel, the autobiographical The Way of All Flesh (1903), he attacked the Victorian pattern of life, in particular the ecclesiastical environment in which he was reared. Brilliantly ironic and witty, The Way of All Flesh is ranked among the great English novels. Butler's notebooks were published in 1912.

Bibliography

See selections from the notebooks ed. by G. Keynes and B. Hill (1951). See also A. Sliver, ed., The Family Letters of Samuel Butler, 1841–1886 (1962); biographies by H. F. Jones (1921, repr. 1973), L. E. Holt (1964), and P. Henderson (1953, repr. 1967); study by W. G. Becker (1925, repr. 1964).

Butler, Samuel

 

Born Feb. 8, 1612, in Worcester; died Sept. 25, 1680, in London. English poet and satirist. Son of a small farmer.

Butler began his literary career during the Restoration, the reinstatement of the Stuart dynasty (1660–88). An opponent of the Puritans, Butler was famous for his heroic comic poem Hudibras (parts 1–3, 1663–78), in which the self-satisfied, pedantic Presbyterian judge Sir Hudibras and his squire are portrayed. The poem ridicules the hypocritical manners and religious fanaticism of the bourgeois Puritans. At the same time, in the satire A Burlesque About Lords and Ladies and other works, Butler criticized the aristocracy and courtiers of the Restoration.

WORKS

Satires and Miscellaneous Poetry and Prose. Edited by R. Lamar. Cambridge, 1928.

REFERENCES

Istoriia angliiskoi literatury, vol. 1, issue 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1945.
Burton, K. M. P. Restoration Literature. London, 1958.

Butler, Samuel

 

Born Dec. 4, 1835, at Langar, county of Nottinghamshire; died June 18, 1902, in London. English writer. Son of a clergyman.

After graduating from the university, Butler took holy orders; afterwards, he renounced the career of a clergyman. The hypocrisy of bourgeois morality was unmasked in his antibourgeois satire Erewhon (anagram of the word “nowhere”; 1872) and its sequel Erewhon Revisited (1901). The realistic novel The Way of All Flesh (1903; published posthumously) exposes the falsity of bourgeois family relations.

WORKS

The Shrewsbury Edition of the Works, vols. 1–20. London, 1923–26.
In Russian translation:
Zhiznennyi put’. Moscow, 1938.

REFERENCES

Istoriia angliiskoi literatury, vol. 3. Moscow, 1958.
Anikst, A. A. Istoriia angliiskoi literatury. Moscow, 1956.
Henderson, Ph. Samuel Butler, the Incarnate Bachelor. London 1953.
Harkness, S. B. The Career of Samuel Butler (1835–1902): A Bibliography. London, [1955].
References in periodicals archive ?
Paradis, ed., Samuel Butler, Victorian Against the Grain (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007), pp.
"Friendship is like money, easier made than kept." - Samuel Butler
BEIRUT: "Every man's work," Victorian novelist Samuel Butler once remarked, "whether it be literature, or music or pictures or architecture or anything else, is always a portrait of himself."
As the Victorian author Samuel Butler once said: ''The oldest books are only just out to those who have not read them''.
Papers discuss origins of ageing mechanisms, mitochondrial DNA and human origins, humanistic-scientific theories of the origin of art, memory as the origin of biological and cultural identity in the work of Samuel Butler, the evolutionary origin of altruism in human behavior, the early origins of smiling, the genesis of the cosmos in classical Greek culture; origins of Indo-European words and Nordic representations; cultural memory and the origins of England; and the semantics of originality as an indicator of the cultural paradigm shift from Medieval to Modern.
Only five years before, in 1899, Samuel Butler had published Shakespeare's Sonnets Reconsidered, where he took up Tyrwhitt's hypothesis to argue that if read in the "proper" sequence, the sonnets yield further information about the background and character of Mr.
Once we have set aside Samuel Butler II, because he hailed from Nottinghamshire, we can safely concentrate on Samuel Butler I.
QUIZ CHALLENGE: 1 Bing Crosby; 2 Chicago; 3 A venomous snake; 4 Zabaglione or sabayon; 5 Samuel Butler.
In the backward world envisioned 135 years ago by Samuel Butler in Erewhon, taxation is regressive, on the theory that a business fortune is evidence of society's esteem toward its holder.
His poetry was widely known and his verse satire was considered to be styled like that of the English poet, Samuel Butler.
Judging from the present volume, every century seems to have its English or at least its English-speaking Cervantes: Samuel Butler in the seventeenth, Henry Fielding and Tobias Smollett in the eighteenth, Mark Twain in the nineteenth, and Roy Campbell in the twentieth.
d'Erewhon"--an anagram for "nowhere" and a reference to Samuel Butler's dystopian novel.