Samuel

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Samuel,

two books of the Bible, originally a single work, called First and Second Samuel in modern Bibles, and First and Second Kingdoms in the SeptuagintSeptuagint
[Lat.,=70], oldest extant Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible made by Hellenistic Jews, possibly from Alexandria, c.250 B.C. Legend, according to the fictional letter of Aristeas, records that it was done in 72 days by 72 translators for Ptolemy Philadelphus, which
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. They are considered part of "Deuteronomistic history," in which the book of DeuteronomyDeuteronomy
, book of the Bible, literally meaning "second law," last of the five books (the Pentateuch or Torah) ascribed by tradition to Moses. Deuteronomy purports to be the final words of Moses to the people of Israel on the eve of their crossing the Jordan to take
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 functions as the interpretive key for understanding Hebrew history. The books cover the careers of Samuel, Saul, and David (roughly the 11th cent. B.C.), as follows: first, Samuel's career and judgeship; second, the establishment of the Hebrew monarchy, with the anointing and subsequent success of Saul, followed by the anointing of David and the bitter rivalry between David and Saul; third, the reign of David, first at Hebron, then at Jerusalem; and, fourth, an appendix of various, unordered materials. Scholars have detected two main strands in the composition of the book, based on divergent attitudes toward the monarchical establishment. In both the books of Samuel and of Kings, the prophets represent the claim of the divine over human kingship. One section is said to be written by a contemporary of David, making it the oldest piece of Bible narrative. The prophet Samuel, fl. 1050 B.C., was the last judge of Israel and the first of the prophets after Moses. The circumstances of his birth, childhood, and vocation are told at the beginning of First Samuel. His judgeship was dominated by war with the Philistines, who captured the Ark of the Covenant. In his old age he agreed, at divine request, to the establishment of a king; he thus anointed Saul and remained chief prophet during Saul's reign. In this role he anointed David, and after dying, appeared to Saul at Endor. Samuel became a national hero and eventually a popular figure of Jewish legend.

Bibliography

See studies by P. K. McCarter (1980, 1984), J. Baldwin (1988), and W. Brueggemann (1990); R. Alter, The David Story (1999). See also bibliography under Old TestamentOld Testament,
Christian name for the Hebrew Bible, which serves as the first division of the Christian Bible (see New Testament). The designations "Old" and "New" seem to have been adopted after c.A.D.
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.

Samuel

his spirit appears to Saul through the witch of Endor. [O.T.: I Samuel 28:24]
See: Ghost

Samuel

Old Testament
1. a Hebrew prophet, seer, and judge, who anointed the first two kings of the Israelites (I Samuel 1--3; 8--15)
2. either of the two books named after him, I and II Samuel
References in classic literature ?
"She was fair lunatuc on Samuel. Dudna her neighbours' an' all kuth an' kun savun' them thot luv'd un the house wuth her, get up an' walk out ot the christenun' of the second--hum thot was cooked?
"An' then was there no the third Samuel? An' when he was lost ot sea off the Cape, dudna she break all laws o' nature tull hov a fourth?
At sixteen Samuel left school, and for two years idled about his father's shop, reading everything that came in his way.
A well-off friend, however, offered to help, and so at eighteen Samuel went to Oxford.
"Will not the string be very indigestible, Anna Maria?" inquired Samuel Whiskers.
"I do not think"--said Samuel Whiskers, pausing to take a look at Tom Kitten--"I do NOT think it will be a good pudding.
'That the Corresponding Society of the Pickwick Club is therefore hereby constituted; and that Samuel Pickwick, Esq., G.C.M.P.C., Tracy Tupman, Esq., M.P.C., Augustus Snodgrass, Esq., M.P.C., and Nathaniel Winkle, Esq., M.P.C., are hereby nominated and appointed members of the same; and that they be requested to forward, from time to time, authenticated accounts of their journeys and investigations, of their observations of character and manners, and of the whole of their adventures, together with all tales and papers to which local scenery or associations may give rise, to the Pickwick Club, stationed in London.
I said nothing to Samuel. But, remembering what Penelope had told me about the jugglers, and the pouring of the little pool of ink into the palm of the boy's hand, I instantly suspected that I had disturbed the three Indians, lurking about the house, and bent, in their heathenish way, on discovering the whereabouts of the Diamond that night.
I suppose you had something salt for breakfast, Samuel?" queried Miss Dearborn with sarcasm.
"Samuel, stay where you are till the close of school.
Upon the death of the estimable captain, Samuel Ferguson, then twenty-two years of age, had already made his voyage around the world.
Samuel Ferguson returned to England about 1850, and, more than ever possessed by the demon of discovery, he spent the intervening time, until 1853, in accompanying Captain McClure on the expedition that went around the American Continent from Behring's Straits to Cape Farewell.