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San Juan(săn wän, Span. sän hwän), city (1991 pop. 353,476), capital of San Juan prov., W Argentina. It is a commercial and industrial center in an agricultural region. Wine is the chief product, and vineyards dot the picturesque landscape. Fruits and grains are grown, cattle are raised, and the province is rich in minerals. Founded in 1562, San Juan figured prominently in the civil wars of the 19th cent. Many Argentine statesmen, including Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, were born in San Juan.
San Juan,city (1990 pop. 437,745), capital, largest city, chief port, and commercial and cultural center of Puerto Rico, NE Puerto Rico. Coffee, tobacco, sugar, and fruit are exported from the busy port, mainly to the United States. San Juan's industries include tourism, brewing, distilling, and publishing; manufactures include metal products, cement, and clothing. The city is Puerto Rico's financial center and has many international banks and business corporations. San Juan also has an international airport. The city's old section, situated on two rocky islets guarding one of the best harbors in the Caribbean, is linked by bridges with the mainland.
The bay was named Puerto Rico [rich port] by Ponce de León, who in 1508 founded a settlement at nearby Caparra. In 1521 the settlement was moved across the bay to San Juan's present site. Strongly fortified, it withstood attacks by English buccaneers in 1595 but succumbed for a few months in 1598 to George Clifford, earl of Cumberland, and was sacked by the Dutch in 1625. San Juan's port gained increasing importance during the 18th and 19th cent. U.S. troops occupied the city during the Spanish-American War in 1898.
In the old city, a historic landmark whose narrow streets, small shops, and houses with overhanging balconies recall a colonial atmosphere, there are impressive historic buildings: El Morro castle (begun 1539), which commands the harbor entrance and is a national monument; San Cristóbal castle (begun 1631), originally a Spanish fort; and La Fortaleza (begun 1529), a former fort now used as the governor's official residence. Other San Juan landmarks include San José Church (founded c.1523), the oldest church in continuous use in the Western Hemisphere; Casa Blanca (1523); and the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista, which contains the tomb of Ponce de León. Also in the city are the Univ. of Puerto Rico and its School of Tropical Medicine, the College of the Sacred Heart, a campus of the InterAmerican Univ. of Puerto Rico, and the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico. Nearby are several resort beaches (notably the Condado and Isla Verde), which attract tourists from North America.
San Juan,pueblo (1990 pop. 1,821), Rio Arriba co., N N.Mex., on the Rio Grande; settled 1598 by Juan de OñateOñate, Juan de
, fl. 1595–1614, Spanish explorer in the American Southwest, possibly b. New Spain. In 1598 he led an expedition north from New Spain, took possession of New Mexico for the Spanish king, and established a settlement at San Juan.
..... Click the link for more information. . A Franciscan mission was later established. It was the home of PopéPopé
, d. c.1690, medicine man of the Pueblo. In defiance of the Spanish conquerors, he practiced his traditional religion and preached the doctrine of independence from Spanish rule and the restoration of the old Pueblo life. In Aug.
..... Click the link for more information. , the medicine man who led the Native Americans in the Pueblo revolt of 1680. The inhabitants are PuebloPueblo,
name given by the Spanish to the sedentary Native Americans who lived in stone or adobe communal houses in what is now the SW United States. The term pueblo is also used for the villages occupied by the Pueblo.
..... Click the link for more information. who speak a language of the Tanoan family and produce art and handicrafts.
San Juan(sän hwän), river, c.110 mi (180 km) long, flowing from the southeast corner of Lake Nicaragua E to the Caribbean Sea, near the port of San Juan del Norte. The lower course of the deep navigable river is the boundary between Nicaragua and Costa Rica but belongs to Nicaragua, and Costa Rica's long-affirmed right to free navigation on the river there has been the source of dispute and tension between the two nations. A 2009 International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling on the issue upheld Nicaragua's right to regulate river traffic while placing limits on what rules it could impose. In 2010, however, tensions flared over a disputed island at the river's mouth when Nicaragua stationed troops there; the troops remained despite a call by the Organization of American States for both sides to withdraw. A 2011 ICJ interim ruling called on both sides to avoid the disputed island, and in 2015 the ICj ruled that Nicaragua had violated Costa Rica's sovereignty. An ICJ ruling in 2018 in a similar dispute also was decided in Costa Rica's favor, assigned the disputed island to Costa Rica, and ordered Nicaragua to pay damages.
San Juan(săn wän), river, c.400 mi (640 km) long, rising in the San Juan Mts., SW Colo., and flowing generally W through N.Mex. and Utah to Lake Powell on the Colorado River. Navajo DamNavajo Dam,
402 ft (123 m) high and 3,648 ft (1,112 m) long, NW N.Mex., on the San Juan River, near the Colo. line; built 1958–63 by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
..... Click the link for more information. , part of the upper Colorado River storage project, is on the river, which is unnavigable. Its chief tributaries are the Animas, Los Pinos, La Plata, Piedra, and Mancos rivers. The San Juan is used for irrigation; vegetables, fruits, and grains are grown in the river valley in northwestern N.Mex.
a province in western Argentina, in the foothills of the Andes. Area, 86,100 sq km; population, 391,000 (1970). Its capital is the city of San Juan. The province is one of the leading viticulture and fruit-growing (citrus and olive trees) regions of the country. Livestock is pastured. Lead and zinc ores are mined, and the province has food and cement industries (city of San Juan).
a city and capital of Puerto Rico. It is situated on the northern coast of the island of Puerto Rico and, partially, on a small island (Old San Juan). The climate is tropical, with an average January temperature of 24°C and an average July temperature of 21.2°C. The annual precipitation is 1,550 mm. Population, including suburbs, 840,000 (1973, estimate).
San Juan was founded in 1508 by the Spanish conquistador J. Ponce de León in the northern part of the island of San Juan Bautista and named Caparra. In 1521 the settlement was transferred to another site and named Puerto Rico (Spanish, “rich port”). In the course of time, the Spaniards began to call the entire island Puerto Rico and to use the name of the island—San Juan—for the city. Later, San Juan became the capital. One of the richest cities in Spain’s American colonies, it was frequently attacked by English, French, and Dutch pirates, who caused great devastation; damage was particularly heavy in 1595, 1625, and 1703. During the Spanish-American War of 1898 the city was subjected to heavy bombardment.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, San Juan has grown rapidly. It is a highway junction, and also the country’s principal port. The city is served by the Isla Verde International Airport. Industry is represented by food (mainly sugar), tobacco, textile, footwear, garment, petroleum-refining, and chemical enterprises, most of which are located in the industrial suburb of Cataño.
The heart of the city, built up principally in the first half of the 16th century, has retained the network of narrow streets, buildings in the Late Spanish Gothic style (San José Church, 1529, facade, 1635–40; and the cathedral, 1540–87, facade 17th century), and imposing stone fortifications (fort of San Felipe del Morro, 1533–1783). The new districts, constructed in the 20th century, including Río Piedras, Bayamón, and Cataño, are distinguished by broad thoroughfares, multistory buildings, and parks. Examples of modern architecture are the Caribé Hilton Hotel (1947–49) and the Supreme Court building (1955, both by architects O. L. Toro and M. Ferrer Rincón), and the University of Puerto Rico (1955; principal architects include J. Benítez). The city has numerous slums.
San Juan is the site of the University of Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Academy of the Spanish Language, the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture, and the Inter-American University of Puerto Rico Library. The city has seven museums: the House of Books, the Military Museum of the National Guard, the Rodante Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Religious Art, the Museum of Military and Naval History, and the Caparra Ruins Historical Park. Theaters include the Tapia (formerly the Municipal Theater), La Perla, Ateneo, Alta Escena, and the university theater. There is also a troupe attached to the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture.
a city in western Argentina, situated on the San Juan River. Capital of San Juan Province. Population, 224,000 (1970). The city is a rail and road junction and the trade center for a major viticulture and wine-making region. There are food and cement industries. San Juan was founded in 1562. It was severely damaged by an earthquake in 1944.
(San Juan de la Maguana), a city in the western part of the Dominican Republic, situated on the San Juan River. Capital of San Juan Province. Population, 29,700 (1969). It is linked by road with Santo Domingo. The city is the trade center for an agricultural region whose crops include rice, coffee beans, fruits, and cereals. There is processing of agricultural products.
a river in northwestern South America, in Colombia. The San Juan measures 380 km long. It originates in the Cordillera Occidental, flows through the coastal lowland (a continuation of the Atrato river basin), and empties into the Pacific Ocean, forming a delta. The San Juan has a high water level. It is navigable for a distance of 200 km above the mouth. There are platinum deposits and gold placers in the sediment of the San Juan and in the watershed of the San Juan and the Atrat.
a river in the western USA, a left tributary of the Colorado River. The San Juan originates in the San Juan Mountains of the Rocky Mountain system. It measures 460 km long and drains an area of 66,800 sq km. The river dries up during the most arid years. The San Juan is used for irrigation.