San Stefano, Treaty of

San Stefano, Treaty of

(săn stĕf`ənō), 1878, peace treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, at the conclusion of the last of the Russo-Turkish WarsRusso-Turkish Wars.
The great eastward expansion of Russia in the 16th and 17th cent., during the decline of the Ottoman Empire, nevertheless left the shores of the Black Sea in the hands of the Ottoman sultans and their vassals, the khans of Crimea.
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; it was signed at San Stefano (now Yeşilköy), a village W of İstanbul, Turkey. The Ottomans ceded to Russia parts of Armenia and the DobrujaDobruja
, Rom. Dobrogea, Bulg. Dobrudza, historic region, c.9,000 sq mi (23,300 sq km), SE Europe, in SE Romania and NE Bulgaria, between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea.
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; agreed to pay a very large indemnity; recognized the independence of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro; and increased the territories of Serbia and Montenegro. Bulgaria was made an autonomous principality and was immensely enlarged, and the Ottoman Empire promised reforms for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Because the treaty modified the Treaty of Paris of 1856 (see Paris, Congress ofParis, Congress of,
1856, conference held by representatives of France, Great Britain, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), Sardinia, Russia, Austria, and Prussia to negotiate the peace after the Crimean War. In the Treaty of Paris (Mar.
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) and greatly increased Russian influence in SE Europe, the other great powers obtained its revision at an international conference (see Berlin, Congress ofBerlin, Congress of,
1878, called by the signers of the Treaty of Paris of 1856 (see Paris, Congress of) to reconsider the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which Russia had forced on the Ottoman Empire earlier in 1878.
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).
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