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(săngktôr`ēəs), Ital. Santorio, 1561–1636, Italian physiologist. He was a professor at Padua (1611–24). By his quantitative experiments in temperature, respiration, and weight, he measured what he called "insensible perspiration" and laid the foundation for the study of metabolism. Among the instruments that he designed was a clinical thermometer. He wrote De statica medicina (1614; tr. 5th ed. 1737).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Santorio Santorio). Born Mar. 29, 1561; died Feb. 22, 1636, in Venice. Italian physician, anatomist, physiologist, and noted iatrophysicist.

Sanctorius was a professor at the University of Padua. He practiced medicine in Poland, Hungary, and Croatia. His principal investigations dealt with human metabolism. Sanctorius gave special attention to the study of respiration and “insensible perspiration” from the skin surface. In experiments that he conducted on himself, he strove to establish and render in quantitative indexes all physiological processes in the body.

Sanctorius invented many measuring instruments, including an instrument for measuring the force of arterial pulsation and a scale for systematically observing weight changes in humans under various conditions. In 1626, together with Galileo, he constructed the first mercury thermometer. Sanctorius correlated his research in the book De statica medicina (1614).


Zubov, V. P. “Santorio Santorio.” Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki, 1962, issue 13.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This idea was based on the old theory of fluids introduced by Galen (131-201) in the second century and further developed by Santorio Sanctorius (1561-1636) in the early 1600s.
In 1614 an Italian physician, Santorio Santorio (1561-1636), better known by his Latinized name as Sanctorius, reported on experiments he had conducted on himself.
Helmont also conducted the first important quantitative measurement involving a biological problem since Sanctorius (see 1614).