Sandawe


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Sandawe

 

(Wassandaui), a people inhabiting the territory between the Bubu and Mponde rivers in Tanzania. They number more than 30,000 (1970, estimate). They speak Sandawe; many also speak Nyaturu (Wanyaturu), which belongs to the Bantu family. Most of the Sandawe have preserved their traditional forms of worship; some have adopted Christianity. The Sandawe engage in farming, livestock raising, hunting, and fishing.


Sandawe

 

the language of the Sandawe people; spoken in the Kondoa region of Tanzania by more than 30,000 persons (1970, estimate). Some scholars relate Sandawe to the Khoisan languages of southwestern Africa (see alsoHOTTENTOT LANGUAGES), although its morphology and vocabulary indicate that Sandawe diverged from these languages in the remote past.

The phonetic features of Sandawe include dental, palato-alveolar, and lateral clicks. Nouns are marked for masculine and feminine gender and for grammatical number. Personal and demonstrative pronouns and a system of verbal formants attest to a distant relationship between Sandawe and the Hottentot and Bushman languages of South Africa (some scholars relate Sandawe only to the Hottentot languages). Sandawe serves as evidence supporting the hypothesis that East Africa was settled in ancient times by Khoisan-speaking peoples.

REFERENCES

Westphal, E. O. J. “The Non-Bantu Languages of Southern Africa.” In A. N. Tucker and M. A. Bryan, The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa. London, 1956.
Greenberg, J. H. The Languages of Africa, 2nd ed. The Hague, 1966.

M. V. OKHOTINA

References in periodicals archive ?
Esta muestra consta de diez idiomas de cada una de las cinco areas en las que hemos dividido el mundo: America (sahaptin, apache, chickasaw, seri, trique, zapoteco, quichua, shiwilu, yine y mapuche), Europa (portugues, espanol, vasco, frances, irlandes, ingles, aleman, polaco, hungaro y griego), Africa (bereber, nara, dinka, amarico, sandawe, mono, hausa, igbo, kabiye y temne), Asia occidental (georgiano, turco, hebreo, arabe, persa, tayik, nepali, hindi, bengali y tamil) y Asia oriental (japones, coreano, mandarin, cantones, birmano, tailandes, vietnamita, malayo, tausug y arrernte) (5).
The only non-Khoisan groups with a bit of Khoisan admixture were the Hadza and Sandawe, ancient Tanzanian click-speakers.
4) Three isolates, Hadza, Kwadi and Sandawe are also included in the sample.
Sex-based gender systems with two distinctions are characteristic of Berber and Cuschitic languages as well as of the isolates Hadza and Sandawe.
Tishkoff's group took DNA donated by 15 African hunter-gatherers--five Pygmies from Cameroon and five Hadza and five Sandawe from Tanzania--and compiled complete genetic blueprints for each person.
Like the anonymous ancestors of the Sandawe people in central Tanzania, who painted or engraved images on rocks, Kambi depends entirely on color.
suggests that the genes of the Namibian and Khomani bushmen (southern Africa), Biaka pygmies (Central Africa) and the Sandawe (East Africa) appear to be the most diverse, and by implication these are the most ancient populations of Homo sapiens.
They are thought to have been made by ancestors of modern Sandawe who speak a `click' language distantly related to Bushmen.
En analysant les fetes de la fertilite des Sandawe, Ten Raa (1969) note que <<The missionaries have strongly discouraged the custom ever since their arrival in 1908, and many Sandawe who have absorbed the ideas of Western Christianity now see it as something shameful; some of them even deny that it ever existed while others no longer have any knowledge of it>> (1969: 38).
1969, <<The Moon as a Symbol of Life and Fertility in Sandawe Thought>>, Africa, 39: 24-53.
La muestra incluye 16 idiomas con un numero muy grande de hablantes a nivel mundial (chino, ingles, espanol, hindi, arabe, portugues, bengali, japones, aleman, frances, tamil, vietnamita, coreano, malayo, persa y turco) (2), y 24 idiomas mas (amarico, arrernte, birmano, checo, chickasaw, dinka, georgiano, griego, hausa, hungaro, igbo, lizu, mapuche, mono, pashayi, polaco, quichua, sandawe, tailandes, tausug, temne, vasco, yine y zapoteco) que son representantes de varias familias y areas linguisticas importantes.