Sandwich, Edward Montagu, 1st earl of

Sandwich, Edward Montagu, 1st earl of

(mŏn`təgyo͞o), 1625–72, English admiral. He fought in the parliamentary army during the civil war, became (1653) a member of the council of state of the Commonwealth, and was appointed (1656) general at sea. After the collapse of the Protectorate, however, he assisted in the Restoration (1660) of Charles II and escorted the king home from Holland. Created (1660) earl of Sandwich and admiral of the narrow seas, he negotiated (1661) the marriage between Charles and Catherine of Braganza, secured English possession of Tangier as part of her dowry, and brought Catherine to England. He fought with distinction at the battle of Lowestoft (1665) in the second Dutch WarDutch Wars,
series of conflicts between the English and Dutch during the mid to late 17th cent. The wars had their roots in the Anglo-Dutch commercial rivalry, although the last of the three wars was a wider conflict in which French interests played a primary role.
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 and was killed in the battle of Southwold Bay in the third war. Samuel PepysPepys, Samuel
, 1633–1703, English public official, and celebrated diarist, b. London, grad. Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1653. In 1656 he entered the service of a relative, Sir Edward Montagu (later earl of Sandwich), whose secretary he became in 1660.
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, his cousin's son, was his secretary at the admiralty.
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