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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

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a highland in southeastern Tuva ASSR; a watershed of the Malyi Enisei (Ka-Khem) and Tes-Khem rivers and their tributaries. Measuring approximately 230 km long, it has a maximum width of 120 km. It rises to an elevation of 3,276 m. It is composed of gneisses, schists, and marmorized limestones broken up by intrusions. The northern slopes have cedar and larch forests. In the deep valleys of the central and southern sections there is woody vegetation. The slopes have steppes, which at elevations of 1,800–2,000 m change to mountain meadows and tundras. There are deposits of ferruginous quartzites and of nephelines, graphite, and gold.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.