Three Kingdoms

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Three Kingdoms,

period of Chinese history from 220 to 265, after the collapse of the Han dynasty. The period takes its name from the three states into which China was divided. Wei occupied the north. South of Wei were Shu in the west and Wu in the east. Each of the states steadily expanded, especially Shu, which moved into modern Yunnan and Myanmar. Wei, however, later steadily increased its strength and crushed Shu in 264. When a usurper seized the Wei throne in 265 and founded the TsinTsin
or Chin
, dynasty of China that ruled from 265 to 420, after the period of the Three Kingdoms. It was divided into two phases: the Western Tsin (265–317) and the Eastern Tsin (317–420).
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 dynasty, the Three Kingdoms period officially came to an end. The Tsin did not conquer the Wu, however until 280. Disorders during the Three Kingdoms period included not only warfare between the Chinese states but also incursions into the north by the Hsiung-nu. The era is fondly regarded in China as exemplifying the highest ideals of chivalry and has been depicted in the adventurous novel San Kuo Chih Yen I [romance of the three kingdoms]. The disorder and disunity of the time caused the eclipse of Confucianism, but opened Chinese culture to new influences, such as native Taoism and Indian Buddhism. From India also came many advances in scientific learning. As knowledge of the outside world grew, maps were improved and a grid system of coordinates was invented. Art was predominantly Buddhist in inspiration and showed many central Asian traits.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Three Kingdoms

 

a period in the history of China (220 to 265 or 220 to 280), named for the number of kingdoms that formed after the disintegration of the Han Empire in 220. It was characterized by political fractionalization and incessant strife among the three kingdoms of Wei, Wu, and Shu. In the first half of its existence, the Shu kingdom waged successful wars under the command of the illustrious Chu-ko Liang (died 234). Subsequently, the Shu kingdom was seriously weakened by internal conflicts and in 263 was annexed by the Wei kingdom. In 265 power in the Wei kingdom was seized by the general Ssu-ma Yen, who founded the Western Ch’in dynasty (265–316) in the same year and conquered Wu in 280.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Delegation of Sanguo Motors briefed the Minister regarding their product line and business model.
Retranslation hypotheses revisited: A case study of twp English translations of Sanguo Yanyi--the first Chinese novel.
References to the standard Chinese histories (Hou Han shu, Sanguo zhi, Song shu, Nan Qi shu, and Nan shi) are to the 1963 Zhonghua shuju editions.
They discuss the roots of the game in Persia as shantranj, through the early Arab world, branching into Central Asia and Mongolia and including Muslim variants and shantar; developments in Northern India, through Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, and Sri Lanka, and including games like chaturanga, chaturaji, ouk and makruk, sit-tu-yin, and catur; chess across China through the Korean peninsula, including games like xiangqi, janggi, qiguo xiangxi, sanguo qi, banqi, doushouqi, and luzhanqi; games in Japan, such as shogi, chu shogi and dai shogi, tenjiku shogi, giant shogi, wa shogi, tori shogi, dobutsu shogi, ko shogi, and taikyoku shogi; and European games like medieval chess, rithmomachy, King AlfonsoAEs games, courier chess, gala, and European chess.
In this very interesting section, Ng notes that, after building up the drama of Duanfang's rivalry with Zhao in a way that recalls the Three Kingdoms [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Sanguo yanyi), Li describes the death of Duanfang at the hands of his rebellious soldiers very simply, as a sort of bizarre, inexplicable twist of fate.
Quan shanggu sandai qinhan sanguo liuchao wen [Collection of essays of pre history, Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Three Kingdoms, and Six Dynasties].
It has launched many popular games including the action game "Gecao Sanguo" in QQ zone and the first tower defense games in Tencent "The Home Defending Battles" and "The Home Defending Battles II".
Seven early plays portray the major episodes in the saga of the Three Kingdoms during 1250-1450, the centuries immediately before the saga was written at the end of the 15th century as Sanguo zhi tongsu yanyi (The Popular Elaboration of the Records of the Three Kingdoms).
By linking money to the forming of sworn brotherhood and to the manifestation of feeling, the sworn brotherhood formed here is therefore an unequivocal parody of that celebrated in Sanguo yanyi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Shuihu zhuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Xiyou ji [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; it also calls into question the very nature of this sworn brotherhood.
(3) Li Yu was a prolific and innovative critic of drama, the sponsor of a major commentary on the novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguo yanyi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), and the suspected anonymous commentator on the Chongzhen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] edition of the novel Plum in the Golden Vase (Jin ping mei [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]).
Among the six commonly acknowledged masterpieces, the Sanguo yanyi (Romance of the Three Kingdoms), Xiyouji (Journey to the West), Shuihu zhuan (Water Margin), Jin Ping Mei (the Plum in the Golden vase), Rulin waishi (Scholars), and Hongloumeng (the Story of the Stone), only the Rulin waishi can rightfully be viewed as an extended prose fiction written in realistic, critically realistic mode, and free from unrealistic elements of supernaturalism, magic realism, and the fantastic.
(17) See Investigation Team from Soft Science Committee of Ministry of Agriculture, "Ouzhou nongmin duozhong xingshi de lianhe yu hezuo zuzhi: Fa, De, He sanguo de kaocha yu qishi" (Various Patterns of Associations and Co-operatives of European Farmers: The Study and Revelation of the Three Countries: France, Germany and the Netherlands), Zhongguo nongcun jingji (Chinese Rural Economy) (Apr.