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(sĕnăk`ərĭb) or


d. 681 B.C., king of Assyria (705–681 B.C.). The son of SargonSargon,
d. 705 B.C., king of Assyria (722–705 B.C.), successor to Shalmaneser V. He completed Shalmaneser's siege of Samaria in 721 B.C., thus destroying the northern Israelite kingdom forever. In 720 he defeated a coalition of enemies at Raphia.
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, Sennacherib spent most of his reign fighting to maintain the empire established by his father. It is difficult to determine the exact sequence of his conquests, but his first campaign seems to have been waged against Babylonia. Later he marched against an uprising of the western nations (Phoenicia, Judah, and Philistia), who were supported by Egypt. He defeated the Egyptians at Eltekeh (701 B.C.) and prepared to take Jerusalem. Isaiah had warned HezekiahHezekiah
, in the Bible, king of Judah, son and successor of Ahaz. During his reign Sennacherib of Assyria routed (701 B.C.) the rebellious Jews, laid seige to Jerusalem, and exacted a high indemnity from them.
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 not to join the uprising against Assyria, but the king had refused the advice. Thus, Sennacherib destroyed many of Judah's cities and besieged Jerusalem, forcing the king to pay a heavy tribute.

Disturbances in Babylonia called the king to that area, and he waged a naval campaign against the Chaldaeans. He laid Elam waste and finally fought both the Chaldaeans and the Elamites at the battle of Halulina (Khaluli; c.691 B.C.). The exact outcome of the battle is uncertain. Two years later Sennacherib captured and destroyed Babylon. He constructed canals and aqueducts and built a magnificent palace at NinevehNineveh
, ancient city, capital of the Assyrian Empire, on the Tigris River opposite the site of modern Mosul, Iraq. A shaft dug at Nineveh has yielded a pottery sequence that can be equated with the earliest cultural development in N Mesopotamia.
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. Two of his sons, jealous of their brother Esar-haddon, murdered Sennacherib. Esar-haddonEsar-Haddon
, king of ancient Assyria (681–668 B.C.), son of Sennacherib. Immediately upon ascending the throne he had to put down serious revolts and defeat the Chaldaeans. He was successful in both enterprises.
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 succeeded to the throne.


See L. L. Homor, Sennacherib's Invasion of Palestine (1926, repr. 1966); B. S. Childs, Isaiah and the Assyrian Crisis (1967).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



King of Assyria from 705 to 680 B.C Son of and successor to Sargon II. Unlike his father, Sennacherib supported the military party. Waging a struggle against Babylonia and its allies, he ordered Babylon destroyed in 689. He devoted much attention to the architectural improvement of the city of Nineveh, the residence of the Assyrian kings. Sennacherib was killed in a palace coup in which his sons took part.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


died 681 bc, king of Assyria (705--681); son of Sargon II. He invaded Judah twice, defeated Babylon, and rebuilt Nineveh
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005