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(säN-külôt`) [French,=without knee breeches], a term loosely applied to the lower classes in France during the French Revolution. The name was derived from the fact that these people wore long trousers instead of the knee breeches worn by the upper classes. The term applied to the sectionary "elites" in Paris connected with the JacobinsJacobins
, political club of the French Revolution. Formed in 1789 by the Breton deputies to the States-General, it was reconstituted as the Society of Friends of the Constitution after the revolutionary National Assembly moved (Oct., 1789) to Paris.
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 and to the popular masses aroused during the revolutionary journées (mass protests). Sans-culottism referred to the collectivist ideology that valued fraternity above liberty and demanded economic controls. With the suicide of RouxRoux, Jacques
, d. 1794, French revolutionary. A priest in Paris, he abandoned the priesthood at the start of the French Revolution. Roux was a member of the Commune of Paris of Aug., 1792. As a leader of the enragés in the Paris sections, he helped to instigate (Feb.
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 and the fall of HébertHébert, Jacques René
, 1757–94, French journalist and revolutionary. An ardent supporter of the French Revolution, he gained the support of the working classes through his virulent paper Le Père Duchesne and was prominent in the Cordeliers.
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, sans-culotte power was neutralized. The enragésenragés
, term applied to a small group of Parisian radical extremists in the French Revolution. Rising prices and food shortages provoked them in Feb.–Mar., 1793, to pillage the city's food stores.
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 were a distinct group of sans-culottes.


See A. Soboul, The Sans-cullotes (1981).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Two other labels--Les Sans Culottes, depicting Delacroix's painting Liberty Leading the People and Rose de Gambrinus, featuring a painting of the king of Flanders sitting with a bare-breasted woman--were denied licensing.
Tench also met a number of the local people, both minor aristocrats and the sans culottes. He did not like the sans culottes because of their manners or their concept of equality.
The band, built from the remains of another Anglo-French combo, Les Sans Culottes, is on the road in support of said CD.
Manhattan's Tout Va Bien and Les Sans Culottes and Brooklyn's Bar Tabac are current participants in this first program under Quest Cares.
(Sans Culottes in the Promised Land); Rinne Groff of New York City (The Ruby Sunrise); and Melanie Marnich, also of Minneapolis (Tall-grass Gothic).