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Related to sans-culottes: Robespierre, Jacobins


(säN-külôt`) [French,=without knee breeches], a term loosely applied to the lower classes in France during the French Revolution. The name was derived from the fact that these people wore long trousers instead of the knee breeches worn by the upper classes. The term applied to the sectionary "elites" in Paris connected with the JacobinsJacobins
, political club of the French Revolution. Formed in 1789 by the Breton deputies to the States-General, it was reconstituted as the Society of Friends of the Constitution after the revolutionary National Assembly moved (Oct., 1789) to Paris.
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 and to the popular masses aroused during the revolutionary journées (mass protests). Sans-culottism referred to the collectivist ideology that valued fraternity above liberty and demanded economic controls. With the suicide of RouxRoux, Jacques
, d. 1794, French revolutionary. A priest in Paris, he abandoned the priesthood at the start of the French Revolution. Roux was a member of the Commune of Paris of Aug., 1792. As a leader of the enragés in the Paris sections, he helped to instigate (Feb.
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 and the fall of HébertHébert, Jacques René
, 1757–94, French journalist and revolutionary. An ardent supporter of the French Revolution, he gained the support of the working classes through his virulent paper Le Père Duchesne and was prominent in the Cordeliers.
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, sans-culotte power was neutralized. The enragésenragés
, term applied to a small group of Parisian radical extremists in the French Revolution. Rising prices and food shortages provoked them in Feb.–Mar., 1793, to pillage the city's food stores.
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 were a distinct group of sans-culottes.


See A. Soboul, The Sans-cullotes (1981).

References in periodicals archive ?
In explaining the alliance of Robespierre and Saint-Just with the sans-culottes, Sonenscher writes that "Circumstances, particularly the war, may have played a part, but so too did the intellectual resources of the array of historical and political investigations that Rousseau's conjectures helped to ignite" (p.
Time was when a classical album sleeve featured nothing more risque than a piano leg sans-culottes or a bust of Beethoven.
Although Robespierre, like most of the revolutionaries, was a bourgeois, he identified with the cause of the urban workers, the sans-culottes as they came to be known, and became a spokesman for them.
They date back to the late-1700s and the name is derived from the looser style of trouser worn by French working-class revolutionaries - named the Sans-Culottes (without breeches) - who rejected the aristocracy's tight breeches.
38) Thus it is no accident that Pere Duchesne would distinguish the virtuous sans-culottes from the rest of society by distinguishing drinking places: "He'll never be seen either in the Cafe des Chartres or in the dives [tripots] where conspiracies are hatched and people gamble.
Su enfasis en que la tarea central, la gran conquista es la abolicion de la servidumbre y la del poder absoluto, con las libertades politicas y el desarrollo del regimen burgues-capitalista, no lo aparta de mostrar que en el desarrollo mismo de la revolucion burguesa va a presentarse una formidable revolucion popular, campesina, urbana con los descamisados, los sans-culottes, los artesanos y asalariados.
Vandalism is the violent destruction of cultural symbols, and a curator achieves what Lenoir tries to achieve: to convince the sans-culottes that the great royal tombs at St Denis are not symbols of royal repression but rather vessels of French cultural identity.
The author also found small similarities between the "forces of order" (210) of 1791 and the sans-culottes movement of 1793, more evidence that crowds of the era were not all cut from the same cloth.
They suggest that those who would criticize such an elite, and that now seems to include the endowment itself, are spiritual sans-culottes sneering at their betters.
for example; neither, although a thing may be Oedipal or, at a stretch, Oedipus-like, can it be 'Oedipal-like'; nor were there, as far as I know, a class of people during the French Revolution known (more than once) as the sans-coulettes rather than sans-culottes.
James Cookson is also careful to explain in brackets any expression which might be unfamiliar to an English-speaking reader of Francois Gendron's detailed study of Parisian life after Thermidor, and which - again based on police records - provides another intimate view of life in the streets, as the outrageously-dressed muscadins or shock troops of the bourgeois reaction were used to stamp out the power of the sans-culottes.