Santa Cruz, Andrés

Santa Cruz, Andrés

(ändrās` sän`tä kro͞os), 1792?–1865, president of Bolivia (1829–39). In 1820 he joined the revolutionists against Spain and, as BolívarBolívar, Simón
, 1783–1830, South American revolutionary who led independence wars in the present nations of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
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's chief of staff, participated in the decisive liberating battles of Junín and Ayacucho. To achieve his one great aim of a Peru-Bolivia confederation, Santa Cruz, elected president shortly after the resignation of Antonio José de SucreSucre, Antonio José de
, 1795–1830, South American revolutionist, b. Cumaná, Venezuela. He joined (1811) the forces fighting for independence from Spain and rose to be the chief lieutenant of Simón Bolívar.
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, energetically set about establishing Bolivia on a sound footing. At the same time he carried on intrigues to foster trouble in Peru and Chile so that his confederation might be realized. When the opportunity came with internal disorder in Peru in 1835, Santa Cruz invaded and established himself as protector. However, at the battle of Yungay (1839) he was defeated by a coalition of his enemies under Manuel BulnesBulnes, Manuel
, 1799–1866, president of Chile (1841–51). He served in the revolt against Spain and commanded the victorious Chilean forces at the battle of Yungay (1839), where the Peru-Bolivia confederation of Andrés Santa Cruz was destroyed.
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 of Chile and barely escaped to spend the remainder of his life in Europe in exile.

Santa Cruz, Andrés

 

Born Nov. 30, 1792, in La Paz; died Sept. 25, 1865, in St. Nazaire, France. Statesman and politician of Bolivia and Peru. Marshal. Son of a wealthy landowner.

Santa Cruz was a colonel in the Spanish Colonial Army. He sided in 1820 with the fighters for the independence of the Spanish colonies in America and fought in the army of J. de San Martin and S. Bolívar. As president of Bolivia from 1829 to 1839, Santa Cruz enacted several administrative and financial reforms and strengthened the power of the central government. Taking advantage of internal strife in Peru, he invaded the country and proclaimed himself protector (1836–39) of the Confederation of Peru and Bolivia, which broke up as a result of Chile’s armed action against the confederation. In 1843, Santa Cruz made another attempt to seize power in Bolivia but was defeated and emigrated to France.

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