Shapur II

(redirected from Sapor II)

Shapur II

or

Sapor II,

310–79, king of Persia (310–79), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. He was the posthumous son of Hormuz II and therefore was born king. His long reign was marked by great military success. Central Asian tribes had taken advantage of his minority to regain much of their former territory, then held by Persia. Later, however, Shapur crushed their kingdom in the east and annexed the area as a new province. Cultural expansion followed this victory, and Sassanian art penetrated Turkistan, reaching as far as China. Having removed the threat from the east, Shapur resumed warfare against the Romans over the control of Armenia. Although driven back at first, the Roman army counterattacked and threatened Ctesiphon. But when the emperor Julian the Apostate was killed (363) in battle, the Romans withdrew. The emperor JovianJovian
(Flavius Claudius Jovianus) , c.331–364, Roman emperor (363–64). The commander of the imperial guard under Julian the Apostate in his Persian campaign, Jovian was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers when Julian was killed.
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 made a humiliating peace, and Shapur recovered Armenia, which he placed under military occupation. Armenia had in the meantime accepted Christianity, and Shapur, an orthodox Zoroastrian, at first persecuted the Christians but later recognized their autonomy and respected their religion. He had a large rock sculpture made near Shapur to commemorate his victory over the Romans.
References in periodicals archive ?
El rex Persarum Sapor II, azote de Roma entre los anos 309 y 379, tambien comparte la totalidad de las caracteristicas atribuidas a sus subditos.
Por ende, Sapor II se dispone a iniciar una guerra apenas terminada la anterior.
Desde el rey Sapor II hasta el lacayo Mercurio, pasando por los Medi, Parthi y Persae en su conjunto, Amiano Marcelino construyo una heteroimagen
Para Amiano, en cambio, la humanitas puede ser instrumentalizada por el enemigo: Sapor II puede fingirla en Amm.
En la llamada "Gran persecucion" dirigida por Sapor II contra los cristianos del imperio sasanida (340-344) miles de clerigos y laicos fueron obligados a optar entre ofrecer sacrificios de acuerdo a los ritos zoroastrianos o enfrentar el verdugo.
Una parte significativa de la historia de la "Gran persecucion" bajo Sapor II esta contenida en una coleccion de martirios relacionados con la muerte del Catolico Simeon y sus companeros.
En concreto, la politica religiosa tolerante de Yazdgard I parece haberse alejado de la politica de hostilidad de su abuelo Sapor II. Este cambio de politica permitio que las fuentes cristianas hicieran una contraposicion retrospectiva de ambos monarcas apelando a una dicotomia que se asemejaba a la ya establecida en occidente entre Diocleciano y Constantino (McDonough, 2008b).
(1) En persa EranUahr i eahpur, fundada por Sapor II quien la poblo con cautivos originarios del imperio romano.
At Amida in 359, Ammianus was amongst the defenders who held out against the Persian king Sapor II for seventy-three days.