the physiological and biochemical characteristics of an organism that permit it to live in water with some amount of organic matter, that is, with some degree of pollution. The concept of saprobity was formulated by Ia. Ia. Niki-tinskii and G. I. Dolgov, the founders of sanitary hydrobiology in Russia.
In connection with the intense pollution of waters by industrial wastes, toxic chemicals, fertilizers, and household chemical products, the term “saprobity” is often replaced by the term “toxobity.” Toxobity is the aggregate of physiological and biochemical characteristics that permit an organism to live in reservoirs and streams polluted by sewage. The concept of saprobity was originally formulated in relation to inland waters, but it is now also applied to seas and oceans because of the dramatic increase in their pollution. The pollution of waters by organic substances is evaluated in terms of saprobity. Accordingly, distinctions are made between polysaprobic, mesosaprobic, and oligosaprobic waters.
REFERENCESDolgov, G. I., and Ia. Ia. Nikitinskii. “Gidrobiologicheskie metody issledovaniia.” In Standartnye metody issledovaniia pit’evykh i stochnykh vod. Moscow, 1927.
Zhadin, V. I. “Problemy sanitarnoi gidrobiologii vnutrennikh vodoemov.” In Sanitarnaia i tekhnicheskaia gidrobiologiia. Moscow, 1967.
Sládeček, V. “The Future of the Saprobity System.” Hydrobiologia, 1965, vol. 25, fasc. 3–4.
M. M. TELITCHENKO