Sarcoidosis


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sarcoidosis

[‚sär‚kȯi′dō·səs]
(medicine)
A disease of unknown etiology characterized by granulomatous lesions, somewhat resembling true tubercles, but showing little or no necrosis, affecting the lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, heart, skeletal muscles, lungs, bones in distal parts of the extremities (osteitis cystica of Jüngling), and other structures, and sometimes by hyperglobulinemia, cutaneous anergy, and hypercalcinuria.

Sarcoidosis

 

in man, a systemic granulomatous disease that affects various organs and tissues and produces a variety of symptoms. It was initially described as a skin disease in 1889 by the French dermatologist E. Besnier and the Norwegian dermatologist C. Boeck. Sarcoidosis was first studied as a systemic disease by the Swedish dermatologist J. Schaumann in the first quarter of the 20th century.

The etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown. The disease was once believed to be tuberculous in origin, but this theory has been abandoned by most specialists. Sarcoidosis seems to be similar to reticulosis. It affects the skin (sarcoids of Boeck and other manifestations), the peripheral lymph nodes, and, most commonly, the thoracic lymph nodes and the lungs. Sarcoidosis of the eyes is often in the form of iridocyclitis, and sarcoidosis of the bones is often in the form of osteitis fibrosa cystica. The nervous system and other organs are less commonly affected. There is no cardinal symptom.

Sarcoidosis is diagnosed on the basis of all available data. The disease process, which is usually chronic, is studied, as are the roentgenologic symptoms of pulmonary involvement. The morphological structure is examined: sarcoid granuloma, which consists of epithelioid, lymphoid, and giant noncaseating cells, is characteristic.

The prognosis is usually favorable, and spontaneous involution, especially of the thoracic lesions, is possible. Relapses are common. The prognosis is worse if pneumosclerosis has developed and if the eyes and central nervous system are involved. When the disease is not treated, the mortality rate is approximately 5 percent. Sarcoidosis is treated by the prolonged administration of corticosteroids.

REFERENCES

Raben, A. S. Sarkoidoz. Moscow, 1964. (Bibliography.)
Lebacq, E. La sarcoïdose de Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann. Brussels, 1964.
5th International Conference on Sarcoidosis. Prague, 1971.

A. S. RABEN

References in periodicals archive ?
We had access to the original data and selected a random subsample (n = 7990) so that the gender distribution (65.5% women) and the mean age (M = 54.2 years) were nearly identical with the sample of the sarcoidosis patients.
Skin biopsy showed multiple, variably sized naked sarcoidosis type granulomas scattered throughout the dermis (Figure 2).
Daniel Culver, DO, Director of the Interstitial Lung Disease Program in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine at Cleveland Clinic who discussed the current standard of care and unmet medical need in treating patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.
- There is confirmation of systemic granulomatous disease consistent with sarcoidosis. Definite - Clinical findings and MRI, CSF and EMG findings are compatible with granulomatous inflammation of the nervous system and other causes are excluded by detailed investigations.
The grant will also help Montgomery recruit new patients and healthy volunteers to collect samples for OMRF's Sarcoidosis Research Unit, which began in 2018 and is the only one of its kind in the state.
More recent studies have reported a high diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Tremblay et al reported a significantly higher diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA (83.3%).
Although the lungs are most commonly affected, sarcoidosis can manifest with extrapulmonary involvement including dermal, ocular, neurological, cardiac, renal, and gastrointestinal involvement.
Epidemiological features of Turkish patients with sarcoidosis. Respir Med 2009; 103:907-912.
With these findings of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, non-caseating granuloma on the skin, lung biopsy negative for AFB, and hypercalciuria, sarcoidosis was diagnosed.
Unsuspected skeletal sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic disease on FDG positron emission tomography and bone scintigraphy.
Modest reductions in circulating HDL can also be seen in active sarcoidosis and other inflammatory states (3).