Only the Sinostega palaeo-tetrapod community, which existed in the North China faunistic province, lacks this genus; however, there are some yet undescribed sarcopterygians
mentioned by Zhu et al.
Electrolocation has been documented among agnathans (Bodznick and Northcutt, 1981), amphibians (Himstedt et al., 1982), chondrosteans (Wilkens et al., 1997), mammals (Scheich et al., 1986; Czech-Damal et al., 2012), sarcopterygians
(Northcutt, 1980), and teleosts (Alves-Gomes, 2001).
As for the collagen, according to Sire and Akimenko (2004), the structure of the elasmoid scale was described in many species of actinopterygians and sarcopterygians
. In all of them the scales were composed by three invariable layers.
One lineage led to the ray-finned fishes, or actinopterygians, and the other to lobe-finned fishes, or sarcopterygians
; the latter gave rise to land vertebrates, Bemis explained.
Schultze also supported Gross's position that Andreolepis is the most primitive actinopterygian and considered (Schultze 1996, p.222) Lophosteus the earliest osteichthyan which cannot be placed among either the actinopterygians or sarcopterygians
B Valiukevicius; sarcopterygians
Porolepis sp., Glyptolepis spp., Osteo-lepididae indet., Dipnoi indet.
Overall, this outcrop is famous for an abundant association of vertebrate remains: psammosteids (Mark-Kurik 1968, 1995; Obruchev & Mark-Kurik 1965), placoderms (Karatajute-Talimaa 1963), sarcopterygians
(Vorobyeva 1977), chondrichthyans (Marss et al.
They are represented by undetermined placoderms, acanthodians and sarcopterygians
distinctum Valiukevicius; and the sarcopterygians
the heterosteid Tollichthys, and several sarcopterygians
. Similar fossil fishes are reported from the lower (upper Emsian) part of the Mantura Fm (Mark-Kurik 1991; Matukhin 1995).
and Chelyophorus sp., acanthodians Devononchus tenuispinus Gross and Homacanthus sveteensis Gross (were not found in 2009 and 2010), sarcopterygians
The Middle Devonian fishes (placoderms, acanthodians, sarcopterygians
, actinopterygians) were identified to a generic or higher level.