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Sardes(–dēz), ancient city of Lydia, W Asia Minor, at the foot of Mt. Tmolus, 35 mi (56 km) NE of the modern Izmir, Turkey. As capital of Lydia, it was the political and cultural center of Asia Minor from 650 B.C. until the death of CroesusCroesus
, d. c.547 B.C., king of Lydia (560–c.547 B.C.), noted for his great wealth. He was the son of Alyattes. He continued his father's policy of conquering the Ionian cities of Asia Minor, but on the whole he was friendly to the Greeks, and he is supposed to have given
..... Click the link for more information. (c.547 B.C.). The first gold and silver coins were minted there in the 6th cent. B.C. An almost impregnable citadel, Sardis was nevertheless captured in 499 by the Ionians in the Persian Wars. In 133 it passed to the Romans. After being destroyed by an earthquake in A.D. 17, it was rebuilt by the Romans. The city was destroyed by TimurTimur
, c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He was the son of a tribal leader, and he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz Khan.
..... Click the link for more information. in the 14th cent. The actual site of the city was not discovered until 1958. Excavations have uncovered the Roman baths and gymnasium, the Greek Temple of Artemis (dating from the 4th cent. B.C.), the walls of the city when it was under Lydian rule, and inscriptions in old Lydian.
(now the village of Sart in Turkey), an ancient city, capital of the kingdom of Lydia from the beginning of the seventh century to 546 B.C. The city reached its peak under King Croesus. In 546, Sardis was captured by the Achaemenids. In 1402 it was destroyed by Tamerlane. Excavations in Sardis, conducted in the 20th century, uncovered a temple of Artemis and a necropolis; the ancient inscriptions were written in the Midianite language.