sarin

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Related to Sarin gas: mustard gas, VX gas

sarin

(zärēn`), volatile liquid used as a nerve gasnerve gas,
any of several poison gases intended for military use, e.g., tabun, sarin, soman, and VX. Nerve gases were first developed by Germany during World War II but were not used at that time.
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. It boils at 147°C; but evaporates quickly at room temperature; its vapor is colorless and odorless. Chemically, sarin is fluoroisopropoxymethylphosphine oxide; it is more toxic than tabuntabun
, liquid chemical compound used as a nerve gas. It boils at 240°C; with some decomposition. The liquid is colorless to brownish; its vapors have a fruity odor similar to that of bitter almonds. The liquid is absorbed through the skin, but the vapor is not.
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 or somansoman,
colorless liquid used as a nerve gas. It boils at 167°C;, evolving an odorless vapor. It is rapidly absorbed through the skin; death may result within 15 min of exposure. In nonfatal concentrations it is hazardous to the eyes.
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. Sarin acts by interfering with cholinesterase, a chemical that transmits impulses from one nerve cell to the next. A gas mask provides adequate protection against the vapor, but the liquid form can also be absorbed through the skin. Sarin was developed by the Nazis during World War II. In 1995 it was used by Aum Shinrikyo, a Japanese religious sect, in a terrorist attack in the Tokyo subway, killing eight people and injuring thousands.

Sarin

 

an isopropyl ester of the acid fluoride of methylphosphonic acid:

a toxic substance with neuroparalytic action; a colorless, mobile liquid. Boiling point, 151.5°C, d4/420, 1.094; index of refraction nD20, 1.383; volatility (maximum concentration), 11.3 mg per liter (20°C).

Sarin is miscible with water in any proportion and dissolves readily in organic solvents. It hydrolyzes very slowly with water, much faster in the presence of inorganic acids, and especially rapidly in aqueous alkalies, ammonia, and amines; it forms nontoxic compounds in all cases. These reactions can be used for degassing of sarin.

Sarin has strongly pronounced myotic action (contraction of the pupil); the lethal concentration is about 0.2 mg per liter for an exposure of one min. A gas mask serves as reliable protection against sarin.

REFERENCES

Sartori, M. “Novoe v khimii boevykh otravliaiushchikh veshchestv.” Uspekhi khimii, 1954, vol. 23, issue 1.
Stepanov, A. “Otravliaiushchie veshchestva.” Zhurnal Vsesoiuznogo khimicheskogo obshchestva im. D. I. Mendeleeva, 1968, vol. 13, no. 6.

R. N. STERLIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The suburbs near Damascus were struck by rockets containing the toxic sarin gas in August 2013.
In late 2014, American investigative journalist Seymour Hersh said Turkey was behind 2013's Sarin gas attack carried out by foreign-backed insurgents in Syria.
Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo, where Ohbu worked at the time and where medical staff received more sarin gas victims than any other facility.
At a press conference in Tokyo, Shizue Takahashi, 64, who lost her husband Kazumasa, then 50, a senior official at the Kasumigaseki subway station, in the 1995 sarin gas attacks on the Tokyo subway system, expressed her outrage at the group.
A number of AUM members are on trial or have been found guilty for a series of crimes, including the Matsumoto and Tokyo sarin gas attacks and a number of other crimes.
Nakagawa was convicted of his involvement in the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995, that killed 13 people and left thousands ill, and was found guilty of involvement in an earlier sarin attack that killed eight people in Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture, on June 27, 1994.
Asahara is on trial in connection with at least 17 major charges, including masterminding the sarin gas attack and for ordering murders.
Asahara is on trial for his alleged role in at least 17 major crimes, including masterminding the sarin gas attacks and for ordering murders.
these weapons is the 1995 sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway
Kitamura was the driver for AUM member Kenichi Hirose, 35, who is accused in a separate trial of releasing sarin gas on a train on the Marunouchi Line, killing one person, on March 20, 1995.
Chizuo Matsumoto, the cult's founder more commonly known as Shoko Asahara, has been on death row for masterminding a series of crimes including the sarin gas attacks.
Kitamura's lawyers said in his defense that he did not intend to kill anybody because he did not know the toxicity of sarin gas and was merely assisting other AUM members.