By the time the Pancatantra made its way into Arabic, having first been translated into Pahlavi, it had already been assimilated into the Sasanid
social and political environments.
A history writes: that in Sasanid
period, Iranian were dominant on ports and coasts while Arab tribes were living in mountains and deserts.
Over time Afghanistan was part of Achaemenid, Macedonian, Mauryan, and Sasanid
empires; on its territory flourished many kingdoms.
A Roman fleet there in 555 for operations against the Sasanid
Prior to the coming of Islam to Iran, Zoroastrianism (2) was the official religion of the Sasanid
(Sasanian) dynasty (226 to 650 CE), although Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and many other religions were also practiced there.
As Halil Inalcik pointed out, however, "the state ownership of arable land was not an Ottoman invention." (33) The Islamic "eminent domain" evolved during the early period of state formation in the Ottoman Empire under Byzantine and Sasanid
The second Persian Empire, the Sasanid
one, contested both the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire from 224 to 651 CE while controlling the trading routes of the Silk Road and the Indian Ocean.
In works done during the Sasanid
period, Iranians called their land Iran.
(135) The Syriac account, likely composed in the early fifth century, is edited with an English translation in Brock, "A Martyr at the Sasanid
Court under Vahran II: Candida," AB 96, no.
In his Fall of the Roman Empire, Peter Heather claimed that the rise of the Sasanid
monarchy quickly shattered Roman hegemony in the Near East and signaled the emergence of a new superpower.
632 and which quickly saw the Eastern Byzantine provinces and the whole of the Sasanid
Persian empire incorporated into a new Arab-ruled polity, is that conversion to Islam was regularly coerced.
In little more than a century, however, Muslim armies had swept over much of the Byzantine world, absorbed the great Persian Sasanid
empire, and occupied the Iberian Peninsula as far as Narbonne in southern France.