Sassanid


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Sassanid,

 

Sasanid

(both: săs`ənĭd), or

Sassanian

(săsā`nyən), last dynasty of native rulers to reign in Persia before the Arab conquest. The period of their dominion extended from c.A.D. 224, when the Parthians were overthrown and the capital, CtesiphonCtesiphon
, ruined ancient city, 20 mi (32 km) SE of Baghdad, Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris opposite Seleucia and at the mouth of the Diyala River. After 129 B.C. it was the winter residence of the Parthian kings. Ctesiphon grew rapidly and was of renowned splendor.
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, was taken, until c.640, when the country fell under the power of the Arabs. The last Sassanid king died a fugitive in 651, but he had been forced to yield Ctesiphon to the Arabs in 636. Under the Sassanids, who revived AchaemenidAchaemenids
, dynasty of ancient Persia. They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous district of SW Iran. His successors, when Elam declined, spread their power westward.
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 tradition, ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism
, religion founded by Zoroaster, but with many later accretions. Scriptures

Zoroastrianism's scriptures are the Avesta or the Zend Avesta [Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary].
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 was reestablished as the state religion. The name of the dynasty was derived from Sassan, an ancestor of the founder of the dynasty, Ardashir IArdashir I
[another form of Artaxerxes], d. 240, king of Persia (226?–240). He overthrew the last Parthian king, Artabanus IV, entered Ctesiphon, and reunited Persia out of the confusion of Seleucid decline.
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, who took and ruled Ctesiphon (224–40). During his reign and many that followed, war with the Romans occupied much attention. Sassanid persecution of Christians led to wars with Byzantium. Syria and Armenia suffered particularly from invading armies. Ardashir I was succeeded by his son Shapur IShapur I
or Sapor I
, d.272, king of Persia (241–72), son and successor of Ardashir I, of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. He was an able warrior king.
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, who was victorious over Roman Emperor Valerian and ruled until 272. The next reign of importance was that of Shapur IIShapur II
or Sapor II,
310–79, king of Persia (310–79), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. He was the posthumous son of Hormuz II and therefore was born king. His long reign was marked by great military success.
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 (309–79), a period of particular significance and glory. Bahram V, ruling 420–38, was defeated by the Emperor Theodosius but succeeded against the White Huns. The Armenians were overwhelmed by Yazdagird II in 451, and their land was overrun by Sassanids under Khosrow IKhosrow I
(Khosrow Anüshirvan) , d. 579, king of Persia (531–79), greatest of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, monarchs. He is also known as Chosroes I or Khosru I. He succeeded his father, Kavadh I, but before becoming king, Khosrow was responsible for a great massacre (c.
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, who reigned 531–79 and who also invaded Syria. Both countries were again overrun by Khosrow IIKhosrow II
(Khosrow Parviz) , d. 628, king of Persia of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty; grandson of Khosrow I. He is also called Chosroes II or Khosru II. He succeeded his father Hormizd, or Hormoz, in 590, but he was opposed by the usurper Bahram Chubin, and forced to flee
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 (ruled 590–628), whose conquest of Egypt was the final victorious achievement of the dynasty. The last representative of the family on the throne was Yazdagird III, who began his reign in 632. His struggle against the Arabs ended in the fall of the Sassanid dynasty. See PersiaPersia
, old alternate name for the Asian country Iran. The article Iran contains a description of the geography and economy of the modern country and a short account of its history since the Arab invasion of the 7th cent.
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References in periodicals archive ?
It is perhaps Ferdowsi's genius to allow his fictional character Rostam to maneuver through what is essentially historical accounts of late Sassanid kings.
The text is shaped at its foundations by the mid-seventh-century period during which the Arabic Umayyad state conquered the Persian Sassanid state, afterward absorbing and retooling a range of its institutions and art forms.
Under Shapur I's Sassanid Empire, the water mills on the River Dez were constructed alongside Dezful bridge by roughly 70,000 Roman prisoners in approximately 260 AD, making them some of the oldest water mills of their type in the world.
Another glass case showcases a bowl from the Sassanid Empire of Persia, next to a statuette, a watchtower model and a funerary figurine, all made of terracotta during the era of the powerful Han dynasty in third century China.
In the 2nd century BC and 3rd century AD, it became the capital of the Neo-Assyrian state of Beth Garmai before this was taken by the Sassanid empire and became a part of Assuristan.
The sections are the Safavid Dynasty 1501-1779, the Zand Dynasty 1759-1925, excursion into prehistory (Achaeminid and Sassanid), the Qajar Dynasty 1779-1924, the Pahlavi Dynasty 1924-1971, and the Islamic Republic of Iran.
"Persians will never forget their defeat at the hands of Arabs in the Battle of Qadisiya [against the Sassanid Persian Empire] 1,400 years ago.
Iran's Safawism is a 16th century ideology, which the Sunnis claim is a cover for a Sassanid Persian Empire defeated by the Arab Army of Khaled ibn ul-Walid who used to be a companion of the Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century AD.
Islam arrived in Iran 651 when invading Arab armies toppled the mostly Zoroastrian Sassanid Empire.
Historically, Iraq was the cradle of civilisations and, many centuries later, was where the Sassanid Persian Empire was defeated by the first Arab Army in Islam under Khaled Ibn al-Walid, a warrior companion of the Prophet Muhammad, in the Battle of Qadessiyah (Iraq).
ISIS literature describes him as "the new Khaled ibn al-Walid" - reference to the Arab commander who defeated the Sassanid Persian empire in the 7th century battle of Qadessiya (now Iraq), which led to the conversion of Persia from Zoroastrianism to the then new Islam.
He was referring to Sassanid Persia, an empire defeated in the seventh century by the Arabs and converted to Islam subsequently.