Sutlej

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Sutlej

(sŭt`lĕj), longest of the five rivers of the PunjabPunjab
[Pers.,=five rivers], historic region in the NW of the Indian subcontinent. Since 1947 it has been separated into an Indian state and a Pakistani province bearing the same name. The Indus River bounds the region in part of the west and the Yamuna River in part of the east.
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, c.900 mi (1,450 km) long, rising in the Kailas Range, SW Tibet region of China, and flowing generally west, meandering through the Himalayas in India, then onto the Punjab plain where it receives the BeasBeas
, river, 250 mi (402 km) long, rising in the Himalayas and flowing generally SW through the fertile Kulu Valley of Himachal Pradesh and the Shiwalik Range to join the Sutlej River, S of Amritsar, N India.
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 River and forms part of the India-Pakistan border; continuing into Pakistan, it is joined by the ChenabChenab
, one of the "five rivers" of the Punjab, 675 mi (1,086 km) long, rising in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and flowing NW through the Kashmir Himalayas, then SW through Pakistani Punjab to join the Sutlej River. The Ravi and Jhelum rivers are the chief tributaries.
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 River (which received the JhelumJhelum
or Jehlam
, westernmost of the five rivers of the Punjab, 480 mi (772 km) long. Rising in Jammu and Kashmir, India, it flows W through the Vale of Kashmir, S through Pakistan-occupied foothills, then SW across Punjab to the Chenab River.
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 and RaviRavi
, one of the five rivers of the Punjab, 475 mi (764 km) long, rising in the Himalayas, NW India, and flowing generally W into Pakistan, past Lahore, to join the Chenab River, NE Pakistan.
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 rivers). The combined stream, the Panjnad, channels the collected waters of all five rivers of the Punjab into the IndusIndus
, chief river of Pakistan, c.1,900 mi (3,060 km) long, rising in the Kailas range in the Tibetan Himalayas, and flowing W across Jammu and Kashmir, India, then SW through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea SE of Karachi.
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 River. The Sutlej is extensively used for irrigation; many large canals branch from it. Bhakra Dam (750 ft/229 m) in Punjab state, N India, impounds water for irrigation and power production (450,000-kW capacity). Until the Sikh Wars in the 1840s, the Sutlej was the border between the Sikh and British spheres of influence.

Sutlej

 

(called the Panjnad in the final section of the lower course), a river in Pakistan, India, and China; the largest tributary of the Indus River, which it joins from the left.

The Sutlej is approximately 1,500 km long and drains an area of 395,000 sq km. It rises in the Kailas Range and receives part of the runoff from Lakes Manasarowar and Langak. The upper course flows through a broad valley, which separates the Great Himalayas from the Kailas and Ladakh ranges. Then, flowing in a narrow gorge, the river cuts through the Great Himalayas and their southern spurs; here, the current is strong, and there are many rapids. At the city of Rupar, the Sutlej flows onto the plain of Punjab and continues across the plain to its mouth. The main tributaries, the Beas and Chenab rivers, flow in from the right.

The upper course is fed chiefly by snow and glaciers; elsewhere the river is fed predominantly by rain, chiefly the summer monsoons, and reaches maximum volume in July and August. The mean flow rate at Rupar is approximately 500 cu m per sec, and the maximum is about 20,000 cu m per sec. Below Rupar the flow rate decreases, since the river and its tributaries are used extensively for irrigation on the plain of Punjab.

Major irrigation canals from the Sutlej include the Dipalpur, Pakpattan, Panjnad, Sirhind, and Bikaner canals. During floods, the canals carry 100 to 300 cu m of water per sec. During high water, the Sutlej is navigable in some parts. The large Bhakra-Nangal hydraulic engineering complex has been built in India at the point where the river emerges from the mountains. The major cities on the Sutlej are Nangal and Phillaur in India and Bahawalpur in Pakistan.

A. P. MURANOV

Sutlej

a river in S Asia, rising in SW Tibet and flowing west through the Himalayas: crosses Himachal Pradesh and the Punjab (India), enters Pakistan, and joins the Chenab west of Bahawalpur: the longest of the five rivers of the Punjab. Length: 1368 km (850 miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
In Punjab, an alert has been sounded in villages and towns situated along the Satluj river after floodgates at Bhakra Dam were opened to maintain the water level in its reservoir.
The company have been awarded two of the final contracts for the project in the Satluj River Basin, in Himachal Pradesh.
Flow of water was 40726 cusecs at Sulemanki, 21588 cusecs at Head Islam and 18706 cusecs at Mailsi Siphon in River Satluj.
A smartly turned out contingent of the Pakistan Air Force took over guard duties from Satluj Rangers.
Shimla, May 20 ( ANI ): Satluj Jal Vidut Nigam Limited, on the occasion of completing 25 years of its existence organized a 5- km mini marathon here on Sunday, with a view to spread environmental awareness among the masses.
According to data collected by the Flood Forecasting Division, the current water flow at Gandasingh Headworks is 60,000 cusecs and a low levels flood exists in the River Satluj but it is expected that the water level will rise further to 80,000 cusecs till the evening, a private news channel reported on Tuesday.
International Resource News-19 October 2009-Indian federal cabinet approves sales of NTPC and Satluj Jal Vidyut shares(C)2009 ENPublishing - http://www.
Flow of water was normal at Ganda Singhwala in River Satluj.
BSF officials said the level of water in the Satluj river rose after Pakistan released water from its side.
Responding to a query, federal minister for Information and broadcasting Qamar Zaman Kaira stated that there has been possibility of inundation in Satluj River and in this connection the government has asked the provincial government to evacuate the people residing in the bed of Satluj River.
LAHORE, August 16, 2010 (Balochistan Times): Meteorological Department has dismissed reports of threats of floods in Ravi and Satluj Rivers and said that water situation in these rivers is normal.
Jhakri (HP), Dec 12 (ANI): Construction activities for the Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (formerly Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation Limited), a hydroelectric power project in Himachal Pradesh, has caused immense damage to the houses of many locals in the region.